1.2. Importance of Drug – solvent interactions
A drug interaction is a condition in which a substance touches the activity of a drug when both are managed together. This action will be synergistic (when the drug’s effect is increased) or antagonistic (when the drug’s effect is decreased) or a new consequence will be made that neither produces on its own. Drug interactions possibly will be the result of many processes. These processes will contain variations in the pharmacokinetics of the drug, such as alterations in the absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion of a drug. Alternatively, drug interactions will be the result of the pharmacodynamics properties of the drug, e.g. the co-administration of a receptor antagonist and an agonist for the same receptor. The drug interaction is well defined as “an alternation in the period or degree of pharmacological results of one drug made by food, another drug, or any other substance”. The interactions between drugs come to mind (drug-drug interaction). However, interactions may also be between drugs and foods (drug-food interactions), as well as drugs and medicinal plants or herbs (drug-plant interactions) and also (drug-disease interactions)17-24. In bio-physical chemistry, drug interaction is the matter of intensive studies, involving composite molecular mechanism and specific hormones, antibiotic and peptide actions, amphiphilicity in molecular structure studies to a significant purpose in the overall drug mechanism. Molecular interactions are vital phenomena in physiological media, such as blood, membranes, and intra and extra cellular fluids. Perceptible thermodynamic changes are created to associate with the processes of drug transport, drug-protein binding, anaesthesia etc. The mechanisms of these molecular processes, on the other hand, are not obviously understood due to the complexities associated with the structure of biomolecules or with their data explanation. It is challenging to achieve these processes in physiological media. Many drugs are hydrophobic organic compounds, to certain quantity indications lower solubility and dissolution rate in water. These properties lower their medicinal efficiency and bioavailability. To get the better dissolution rate, there are two things has to done. One is to develop their solubility in water. Another is to progress their diffusivity. Understanding the occurrence of solubility aids the pharmacist to: 1) Choice the best solvent for a drug or a mixture of drugs. 2) Overcome problems arising throughout making of pharmaceutical solutions. 3) Have information about the structure and intermolecular forces of the drug. 4) Many drugs are formulated as solutions, or added as powder or solution forms to liquids. 5) Drugs with less aqueous solubility frequently present-day difficulties linked to their formulation and bioavailability. A few efficient techniques developing solubility of drugs have established in pharmaceutical processes such as addition of additives (solutes) will progress the drug solubility 25-29.