A .Safe drinking water is essential to human

 

 

 

A

Report on

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

“WATER TANK
ALARAM”

 

 

Submitted By: –

ANUJ RAJPOOT

(DIPLOMA SECOND YEAR)

 

 

Department of Electronics communication

 

 

AMITY
UNIVERSITY

UTTAR
PRADESH

 

Submitted To: –

Mr. Krishnkant
Sir

                                                              CONTENT

 

1. 
Introduction

2. 
Material used

3. 
Circuit defined

4. 
Operations

5. 
Conditions

6.  Flow Chart

7.  Working

8.  Conclusion

9.  Reference

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

A Water
Level Indicator may be defined as a system by which we can get the information
of any water reservoir. Water level indicator system is quite useful to reduce
the wastage of water from any reservoir, while filling such reservoir. Water is
most essential thing on earth .Safe drinking water is essential to human and
other life forms even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. The
total amount of water available on Earth has been estimated at 1.4 billion
cubic kilometers, enough to cover the planet with a layer of about 3 km. About
95% of the Earth’s water is in the oceans, which is unfit for human
consumption. About 4% is locked in the polar ice caps, and the rest 1%
constitutes all fresh water found in rivers, streams and lakes which is suitable
for our consumption. A study estimated that a person in India consumes an
average of 135 liters per day. This consumption would rise by 40% by the year
2025. This signifies the need to preserve our fresh water resources

However,
some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world
population will be faced water based vulnerability. The presence of water level
indicator in reservoir can help control wastage and water inadequacy in such
reservoir. Water level indicator is used to show level of water in an over head
tank, this keeps the user informed about the water level at all time avoids the
situation of water running out when it is most needed. Indicators circuits have
also alarm features. It not indicate amount of water present in overhead tank
but also gives an alarm when tank is full. Advantages of the proposed water
level controller are, very less maintenance, very low cost, very simple
construction and the circuit involved is also relatively simpler. It can be
easily made at home. After assembling the system, what remains is to observe
its operation and efficiency. This can be done by breaking down the activity of
the controller from the detection of water to the working of the pump. We go
over the responses obtained when water reaches the sensors and the logic
employed behind it. We also try to justify how a system as simple as ours can
compete with those available commercially

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                     MATERIAL USED

1.   
PCB BOARD

2.   
TRANSISTOR – BC548

3.   
RESISRANCE – 220 ohm

4.   
BATTERY-9v

5.   
BATTERY CLIP

6.   
LED BULB

7.   
BUZZER

8.   
JUMPER WIRE

9.   
 SOLDERING ROAD

10.                      
SOLDERING PASTE

11.                      
SOLDERING WIRE

12.                      
WATER TANK

13.                      
WATER

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                             CIRCUIT DEFINED

 

PCB BOARD

 

A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports
and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads
and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive
substrate. Components (e.g. capacitors, resistors or active devices) are
generally soldered on the PCB.

 

TRANSISTOR
–BC548

 

The BC548 is a general-purpose NPN bipolar junction
transistor commonly used in European and American electronic equipment. It
is notably often the first type of bipolar transistor hobbyists
encounter, and is often featured in designs in hobby electronics magazines
where a general-purpose transistor is required

 

RESISTANCE-220
ohm

 

220 ohm 1/4 watt Resistor A resistor is
a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical
resistance as a circuit element.   Resistors act
to reduce current flow, and, at the same time, act to lower voltage levels
within circuits.

 

BATTERY-9V

 

The
most common type of 9V battery is commonly referred to simply
as 9-volt, although there are less common 9V batteries of
different sizes. Codes for the usual size include PP3 (for size and voltage,
any technology), 6LR61 (IEC code for alkaline batteries), and in Japan
006P

 

BATTERY
CLIP

 

A terminalof a connecting wire having spring jaws that can be quickly snapped on a terminal of a device, such as abattery, to which a temporary wire connection is desired

 

LED BULB

 

An LED light bulb is a solid-state
lighting (SSL) device that fits in standard screw-in connections but uses LEDs
(light-emitting diodes) to produce light. LED light bulbs are a
more environmentally-friendly alternative to incandescent bulbs.

 

BUZZER

A buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling device,
which may be mechanical, electromechanical, or piezoelectric. Typical uses of buzzers and
beepers include alarm devices, timers and confirmation of user input such as a
mouse click or keystroke.

 

JUMPER WIRE

A jump wire (also known as jumper, jumper wire,
jumper cable, DuPont wire, or DuPont cable – named for
one manufacturer of them) is an electrical wire or
group of them in a cable with a connector or pin at each end (or sometimes
without them – simply “tinned”), which is normally used to
interconnect the components of a breadboard or other
prototype or test circuit, internally or with other equipment or components

 

SOLDERING IRON

A soldering iron is a hand tool used
in soldering. It supplies heat to melt solder so that it can
flow into the joint between two work pieces. A soldering iron is
composed of a heated metal tip and an insulated handle.

 

SOLDERING PASTE

A solder paste is essentially powder
metal solder suspended in a thick medium
called flux. Flux is added to act as a temporary adhesive,
holding the components until the soldering process melts the
solder and makes a stronger physical connection. The paste is a gray,
putty-like material.

 

SOLDERING WIRE

Soft solder typically has a melting point range of
90 to 450 °C (190 to 840 °F; 360 to 720 K), and is commonly used in
electronics, plumbing, and sheet metal work. … For electrical and electronics
work, solder wire is available in a range of thicknesses for
hand-soldering, and with cores containing flux.

 

WATER TANK

A water tank is a container for
storing water. Water tanks are used to provide storage
of water for use in many applications, drinking water,
irrigation agriculture, fire suppression, agricultural farming, both for plants
and livestock, chemical manufacturing, food preparation as well as many other
uses.

 

 

 

                                                   

 

 

Water Level Indicator Project Circuit Diagram:

 

 

 

Operation:

 

The operation of this project is very
simple and can be understood easily. In our project “water level indicator”
there are 3 main conditions:

1.       
There
is no water available in the source tank.

 

2.       
Intermediate
level i.e. either of 3rd to 7th level.

 

3.       
There
is ample amount of water available in the source tank. So let us discuss on the
more about these 3 conditions

 

 

 

                                     CONDITIONS

CONDITION 1:

 

 Water not available

 

When the tank
is empty there is no conductive path between any of the 4 indicating probes and
the common probe so the transistor base emitter region will not have sufficient
biasing voltage hence it remains in cut off region and the output across its
collector will be Vc approximately 4.2v.  which indicates as the tank is empty.

CONDITION 2:

 

 Intermediate levels

 

Now as the water starts filling in
the tank a conductive path is established between the sensing probes and the
common probe and the corresponding transistors get sufficient biasing at their
base, they starts conducting and now the outputs will be Vce (i.e. 1.2v-1.8v)
In this project while the water level reaches the 2th level which warns user
that tank is going to be full soon.

CONDITION 3:

 

Water full

 

When the tank becomes full, the top
level probe gets the conductive path through water and the corresponding
transistor gets into conduction whose output activates the continuous buzzer by
which user can understand that tank is full and can switch off the motor and
save water.

 

 

Flow Chart:

 

                              

Flow chart gives the clear and easy
understanding of the project. The process goes on as follows:

 

                                         

 

                                              Working

 

Here we are using transistor (of NPN type) as
a Switch. Initially there is no voltage applied to the base of the Transistor
Q1 and the transistor is in OFF state and no current is flowing through
collector and emitter and LED is OFF (See below diagram to understand
Transistor Pin structure).

When the water level reaches to Point A in the
tank, the positive side of the battery gets connected to the base of the
Transistor Q1 through the water. So when a positive voltage has been applied to
the base of the Transistor Q1, it gets into ON state and current starts flowing
from collector to emitter. And RED LED glows.

 

You can see resistors (R1, R2, R3) at the base
of each transistor, which is used to limit the maximum Base current. Generally
a transistor gets its ON state fully when a voltage of 0.7 V is applied to the
base. There are also resistors (R4, R5, R6) with each of the LEDs, to drop
the voltage across LEDs, otherwise LED may blow up.

 

Same phenomenon happens when water level
reaches to Point B. As soon as water level reaches to Point B, a positive
voltage gets applied to the Transistor Q2, it gets ON and current started
flowing through YELLOW LED, and LED glows. With same principle, GREEN LED
glow when water level reaches to Point C.And finally Buzzer beeps when water
level reaches to D.

 

Conclusion:

 

Applications
of Water Level Indicator:

•      
Automatic
Water level Controller can be used in Hotels, Factories, Homes Apartments,
Commercial Complexes, Drainage, etc., It can be fixed for single phase motor,
Single Phase Submersibles, Three Phase motors. (For 3Æ and Single Phase
Submersible Starter is necessary) and open well, Bore well and Sump. We can
control two motor and two sumps and two overhead tanks by single unit.

•      
Automatic
water level controller will automatically START the pump set as soon as the
water level falls below the predetermined level (usually 1/2 tank) and shall
SWITCH OFF the pump set as soon as tank is full.

•       Fuel level indicator in vehicles.

•       Liquid level indicator in the huge
containers in the companies.

 

Note: Various Water Level Indicator
Project Videos links are given below for your reference. All these are
collected from various resources.

REFFERENCE