ABSTRACT 4.47+0.40 and 1.79+0.13 respectively. The total aerobic


is a cereal based traditional fermented Ethiopian beverage. It is one of the traditional fermentedbeverages
used fora drink ofholidays, weeding ceremony and also used as a source of income.
The aims of this study were to determine the microbiology, microbial
contaminants and physicochemical characteristics ofBubugn,
a traditional fermented Ethiopian low alcoholic beverage. Sample of Bubugn was collected from Gondar town in three
district areas; Azezo (A), Arada (B) and kebele 18 (C).Microbial counts and
microbial contaminants of Bubugn were enumerated
using standard microbiological methods. Physical and chemical characteristics
such as pH, moisture content, ash content,TitratableAcidity and ethanol content
was measured. The mean value of the pH of the sample was 4.20 +0.14; and
the mean value of moisture content was 45.79 +1.35.The mean crude
fat,ash and ethanol content of Bubugn
were 6.67+0.16, 4.47+0.40 and 1.79+0.13 respectively. The
total aerobic mesophilicmicroorganism grows on Bubugn sample was 3.74×105cfu/ml;
the number of yeasts and molds on PDA was 5.68 ×106cfu/ml. The
number of Lactic Acid Bacteria was also 7. 52×105cfu/ml. Bubugn samples were contaminated by Shegella species, E. coli and S.  aureus which could be due to poor hygienic
conditions related to washing of preparation material, use of contaminated
water and poor personal and domestic hygiene. The traditional brewing
technology of Bubugn
is wasteful and the production is exposed for contamination. Therefore, there should be development of
advanced technique for the improvement of the quality of this drink with
screening and characterization of qualified and stress tolerant strains of fermenting
microorganisms for the desired products.

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Key words:  Bubugn,Titratable Acidity,Total Aerobic Mesophilic



fermented beverages are those which are indigenous to a particular area and
have been developed by the people of that area themselves using age-old
techniques from locally available agricultural products (Ketemaet al., 1998). Fermented
products are typically unique and vary according to regions due to the
variation in climate, social patterns, consumption practices and the
availability of raw materials (Law et al., 2011).Preparation of these products are still in a
small scale and remains as a house art even though the method is simple, highly
acceptable and adaptable by the society(Blandinobet al., 200; Nout, 1993).Processing
techniques of these productsare still used in developing countries especially
in communities with low income levels(Kebedeet al., 2004).Many African foods
that are prepared by the action of diverse species of fungi, bacteria and
yeasts on plant materials are little known outside their native countries (Kebede, 2007).

information is available on the microbiology and biochemical properties of
variety of African traditional fermented beverages, including EthiopianTellaand Borde(Sahle andGashe, 1991), Kenya
buss (Nout,1980),
Egyptian bouza (marcos, 1997) and Tanzania
togowa, mbege(Kingamkome et al., 1998; Shayo et al., 1998; Mugula, 2001).Specially,the
microbiology and physicochemical properties of many of Ethiopian traditional
fermented beverage is not properly written and documented(Getnet and Berhanu, 2016).In
Ethiopia, a number of cereal based traditional fermented beverages are
prepared. Some of the known beverages are Tella, Borde, Shamita, Cheka, Keribo,
Bukire, Merissa, Korefe, Bubugnand so forth. Except Tellaall of the above listed fermented products are
low or non-alcoholic(Kebedeet al., 2002).Traditional Ethiopian beverages are very cheap
because the cereals and additives used for the production are obtained from the
local agriculture products(Getnet and Berhanu, 2016).

is a traditional fermented Ethiopian beverage prepared by indigenous method is part
of life and culture of the different north Gondar communities. It is a
traditionally fermented beverage usually made from millet, sorghum and barely.
This fermented beverageis widely consumed in the area regardless of sex and age.
It is an important product because it is consumed as a low-cost meal
replacement and therefore provides a cheap food alternative for the low-income
group of consumers. It is consumed while actively fermenting and has a short fermentationperiod,
commonly 24 hrs. Peoplein the area prefer Bubugnto high alcoholictraditional and
industrial drinkswhen they have feeling of ill. It is consumed at any season
more over extensively consumed during dry season in the local market and work
place of farmers. It is widely used for thirst quenching properties. This
beverage is produced by the spontaneously fermentation using rudimentary
equipment. It is an opaque effervescent whitish-gray to brown in color with
thick consistency and sweet test.

low ethanol level coupled with crude methods of production under improper
sanitary condition may predispose Bubugnto microbialcontamination.In the contrary, the acidic nature of the product may make it
difficult for some food spoiling and pathogenicmicroorganisms to survive whiten
it. Still,
there is no published scientific work on microbiology, microbial contaminants
and physicochemical properties of this traditional fermented product. Therefore,
there is a need to investigate the microbiology, microbial contaminants and
physicochemical properties of Bubugn. To this
effect, the objective of this study was to investigate themicrobiology, microbial contaminants and physicochemical properties of Bubugn, a traditional fermented Ethiopian beverage.