Abstract: acids on crossbred cows for fertility improvement.

Abstract: A trial was conducted to study
the effects of feeding rumen protected omega fatty acids on crossbred
cows for fertility improvement. Total 72 crossbred cows in
Anand district was selected and divided into two groups based on history of
repeat breeding and anoestrous. All animals were fed basal ration as per their
farm feeding schedule comprising concentrate, green fodder and straw. In addition
to basal ration, animals in experimental group were given 250 gram of supplement (linseed oil
and soybean oil seed – 60:40) in rumen protected
form. Reproduction efficiency was improved in experimental group, which is indicated
by confirmed pregnancy in 78% cows as
compare to 20% in control group. Also lower AI per pregnancy by 62 % in experiment
group for repeat breeding and anestrous animal on account of feeding protected
omega fatty acid as compare to control. From the present study, it can be concluded
that feeding rumen protected linseed oil and soybean oil seed (60:40) based
feed supplement @ 250 g /day helps in improving the fertility status of repeat
breeding and anoestrous cows.

 

Keywords: Cows, Omega
Fatty acids, Linseed based feed supplement, Rumen protected, Reproduction
efficiency

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Introduction

In India, dairy animals mainly thrive on dry
fodders, supplemented with inadequate quantity of green fodder and concentrate;
mineral mixture supplementation is almost negligible. Under such feeding
regime, it has been found that a large number of dairy cattle and buffaloes
suffer from reproductive disorders, which are primarily due to nutritional
deficiencies.

Production of one calf crop per year or 12-month calving
interval provides maximum profit to dairy farmers for high milk yield per cow
with the good economic return.
So, reproduction is the most important production parameter in attaining
profitability in a commercial dairy farm. The productive life of a cows starts with parturition
which is the chief event of reproduction. After that the cow needs regular
cycles of conception and calving to begin consequent lactation which is the key
component of her productive life.  Hence, for a successful dairy farming
reproductive performance of the dairy animals play a very crucial role.
Therefore, the reproductive problems that ultimately leads to reproduction
failure needs to be diagnosed and checked as early as possible for optimal
production and profit in the farm. Usually nutritional deficiencies primarily micro-nutrients
i.e. minerals, vitamins and
energy are responsible for the
low reproductive efficiency i.e. delayed onset of oestrus, repeat breeding and/or infertility.
Subclinical or marginal deficiencies may be a larger problem than acute
deficiency in livestock. Impaired
reproduction performance results in a long service period and increased inter-calving period thereby causing low milk and calf production and reduces the productive
life of animals, causing great economic loss to the dairy farmers, which is
often unrealized.

In
animals, PUFA may play an important role in many reproductive processes
including ovulation, fertilization and parturition (Abayasekara and Wathes, 1999). The positive
effect of dietary fat on reproduction efficiency in dairy cows could be due to
effects of certain dietary fatty acids on the pituitary, ovaries and uterus,
rather than via improved energy status (Lucy et al., 1992; Staples et al., 1998). It
has been proposed that reducing attenuating the prostaglandin secretion by
uterus might be a potential mechanism by which some fatty acid improves reproductive
efficiency in dairy cattle (Mattos
et al., 2000; Mattos et al., 2004). Feeding protected palm oil FA
through Ca salts improved pregnancy of dairy cows (Schneider et al., 1988) as it prevent unsaturated
fatty acid to get bio-hydrogenated in rumen and made available as such form.

As linseed
contains high levels of a-linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid) ranging between 52- 63% and about 16%
of a- linoleic acid
(omega-6 fatty acid), which are considered as healthy fatty acids (FA). These
omega fatty acids have also been shown to influence the reproduction efficiency
of dairy animals. There is also evidence that a- linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) can be elongated
and de-saturated by mammalian enzyme systems to produce small amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3)
and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) (Griinari et al 2000). The EPA may aid
in the suppression of synthesis of PGF2? by the uterus through opposing the key
enzyme, prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PGHS), required for the
conversion of arachidonic acid to PGF2?. Although DHA is not a substrate, but it
is a strong inhibitor of PGHS activity. If EPA and DHA intake increases, it can
reduce the conversion of arachidonic acid to PGF2?, thus increasing the probability
of preserving the life of the newly formed embryo. If these fatty acids are fed in protected form may have
improved reproduction efficiency in cows and buffaloes.

Considering high level of a- linoleic and linolenic acids in linseed and its
availability in some parts of India,  rumen
protected linseed and soybean oil seed based strategic feed
supplement would
be formulated with most of the crucial trace
elements in the form of organic chelates and coated vitamins and feeding trial was conducted on crossbred cows to see
its effect on reproduction efficiency, so that problems of infertility could be
cured in an economical and effective manner under field conditions.
 The results of the
study are presented in this manuscript.