BIC buying a new one was not expensive.

BIC
is the most popular brand of disposable pens. The authorship of the invention
belongs to people that have no relation to BIC Company. Laszlo and George Biro,
the Hungarian brothers, patented their invention in 1938. Being a journalist,
Laszlo Biro noticed that the ink that is used for printing newspapers dries
quicker than the ink from a fountain pen. Laszlo came to an idea to develop a
pen that would use same ink, which would make it more practical. The problem
was that the ink that was used in printing newspapers was too thick, and it
could not flow through the fountain pen. Because of that, Laszlo and George
decided to change the construction of a pen by adding a tiny metal ball to the
point of a pen. Thus, moving such pen, paper forced the metal ball to rotate
and to pick up ink from the reservoir inside. In such a way, the ink was
delivered on paper.

Marcel
Bich was not among those people who came up with the idea of the creation of
such a pen but he popularized those pens. Popularizing of the new product was
not the only innovation Bich achieved because along with ballpoint pens he
introduced the new principle of life that signalized about the forthcoming of
consumerism. The new principle was disposability, and all of the next
production of BIC, including razors and cigarette lighters, followed the same
principle. All of them were disposable.

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Concerning
the pen, its handle was made of the transparent plastic, which was unusual for
that time, and the word “Crystal” derives from this characteristic. The brand
name is a shortened version of the family name of the inventor with omitted
“h”.

The
most important advantage of BIC Crystal was its low price. It could be thrown
out, and buying a new one was not expensive. However, especially for the neat
and the miser, it was possible to replace only the rod saving on the handle.
This predetermined the popularity of the novelty, which took only a few years
to conquer Europe and radically change the world. Marcel Bich was the first to
offer mankind disposable items, first of which was a ballpoint pen, second – a
lighter, and third – a razor. After that, disposable items flooded the world.

Interestingly,
Bich’s first pen cost only 29 cents. According to the calculations of the
entrepreneur, he needed to sell ten thousand disposable pens a day to pay back
the costs. Marcel even did not expect that in two years the sales of his pens
would reach quarter million per day. The product of BIC was a combination of
simplicity, reliability, and cheapness. The company always claimed to find the
straight solutions for everyday tasks that the average people deal with: “When
faced with complexity, we respond with clarity.” The loyalty of the customers
was guaranteed by the unchanging quality of the product. In particular, BIC pen
is claimed to write two kilometers, and the length stays unchanged from the
moment of emergence of these pens till now.

The
audience of the BIC is defined by the company as ” for everyone, everywhere:
write in many colors, highlight, draw, color in, correct, produce a flame or
shave… with BIC products, everyone in the world is sure to find what they need,
at an affordable price, offering both quality and reliability. In addition, BIC
products are available to consumers worldwide in more than four million retail
outlets, from open-air pushcarts to large retailers.”

Eastman
Kodak Company is an American company, the manufacturer of photographic
materials, equipment, supplies, and software for offset, digital, and
functional printing. The company was founded by George Eastman in 1881 whose
initial interest was the development of camera roll. The process of photography
at the end of the 19th century remained extremely difficult. First of all, it
was necessary to manually dilute the liquid photosensitive emulsion. Secondly,
in complete darkness, the photographer applied the emulsion to the glass plate,
then made a shot, and it was necessary to do this before the emulsion dries.
George did not like such a laborious technology, and right in his own kitchen
for many years by numerous experiments, he was creating a brome-gelatin
emulsion recipe, which could be applied to the plates in advance as it remained
sensitive to light after drying. Soon, Eastman simplified this process by
inventing the composition of a dry emulsion, which was not covered with brittle
and heavy glass, but with a flexible and light celluloid film, the prototype of
modern film. This invention was the first of those patented by the future
millionaire.

In
order to make photography a true mass activity, the consumer needed to be
offered not only a convenient photosensitive material but also an easy-to-use
device that would be ideally suited for this material. The first camera of his
design George patented in 1886 but its mechanism was not entirely successful
due to a poorly triggered loud “shutter-alligator.” Continuing to
improve the design, on September 4, 1888, Eastman registered the name
“Kodak” as a trademark. Soon, his design office presented the first
amateur portable camera Kodak number 1 to the public. The size of the device
was smaller than the shoe box – a little over 6 inches in length, 3.5 inches in
width and less than 4 inches in height. Outwardly, it looked like a small box,
for which he was nicknamed the “detective camera” among the people.

The
small body of the camera had no levers, wheels or disk regulators as well as
additional screens, with which modern devices abound. Streamlined forms of the
brown box are violated only by two light brown buttons, one of which was the
release of the shutter and another was the mechanical rewinding of the film. At
that time it was necessary to manually twist each shot. The camera was so easy
to use and primitive that this model was destined for the popularity among the
American users. Advertisement of the camera was held under the catchy slogan
“NO SETTINGS!”

Simplicity
and convenience in use as well as a fairly modest price, which was just under
$5, made this camera affordable and attractive for all amateur photographers
and even children. However, it is not surprising because of the fact that
George Eastman in 1888 made a memorable expression “You press the button –
we do the rest” the motto of his company. Following this slogan not only
provided Eastman and his followers with considerable prosperity but also made
it possible the first public art to emerge, and this art, the art of photograph
quickly gained worldwide popularity.

The
first camera of the legendary Kodak Brownie series appeared back in 1900. The
device was externally a small brown box with a minimum of settings made of
pressed cardboard, pasted with leatherette. The model was incredibly in demand
in the market; different variants of the “brown box” were on sale for
almost 70 years – until the end of the 1960s, turning the photo into a truly
massive hobby. The phenomenon of this popularity is explained by the same
reasons for incredible cheapness and equally incredible ease of use. In 1900,
the camera cost only $1, which is about $26 at current prices.

Brownie
cameras were originally designed for children. The name “brownies”
means tiny harmful, but soft-hearted fairy men, invented by Canadian writer
Palmer Cox. However, this device was willingly bought by adults who were
seriously interested in photography. Thus, it is not surprising that this is
the series of Kodak cameras that owns a world record of ten million units sold
in only one five-year period from 1957 to 1962. Brownie cameras were constantly
improving, and new models were produced in incredible quantities and dozens of
varieties.