CHAPTER major problem facing middle-lower income group due

 

CHAPTER 1

 

1.1             
Introduction

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House
or shelter is a basic human need to be fulfilled where it would contribute
significantly to the socio-economic development and welfare of the community.
Hence, Family Welfare and Community that became as the tagline for this study will
ensure the affordable housing for the low-income households can be fully met
not only in terms of sufficient quantity but also quality in terms of its
strategic position, complete with amenities and a healthy environment and
secure.

 

According to Abed, 2012,
affordable housing can be defined as a relationship between housing and people.
For some people all housing is affordable, no matter how expensive it is, for
others no housing is affordable unless it is free”. Affordability in housing
market is one of the major problem facing middle-lower income group due to the
continuous increase of construction costs. Affordability is usually measured by
the relation between the household income and the housing cost, in order to
understand this relation it is required to understand the classification of
household according to their income (Abed, 2012).

 

Based on the Malaysian
Urban-Rural-National Network on Sustainable Development Indicators (MURNInet,
2017), the definition of affordable housing is defined as covering the houses
built for low-income households, low-medium and medium. It is related to the
ability of the income (monthly) various groups of households to pay for at
least 1/3 of the total household income for the purpose of payment (ownership
or lease) without burdening households pay the costs of another life.

 

The current scenario in the country
is found that there is affordable housings are located in less strategic
location and was not equipped with adequate facilities, thereby causing an
increase in the cost of living and living environments are less secure and
comfortable (0National Housing Policy, 2013). Therefore, through this study can
guide the implementing agencies in developing quality of affordable housing
where each able to influence and shape human behavior and its community,
productivity and overall national development.

 

One the other hand, the are various
type of issue of housing which are about the location of the houses, the price
of the houses, lack of land in urban area and the accessibility to the
community facilities.

 

 

1.2       Problem
Statement

 

Among
the urban housing problem in the country that has been identified which is the
problem of supply for affordable housing were still unable to meet the demand
of the urban population. Although the government has introduced many programs
such as the Affordable Home Ownership Program and Rumah Mesra Rakyat Scheme for
poor families, Rumah SelangorKu, there are still lack in identifying the location
for the affordable housing. The population also including single mothers who do
not have a house, but in fact there are many who cannot afford to buying
houses. These things happen as a result of increasing urbanization in the
country. There are several type of problem statement that can be related to the
affordable housing such as:

 

i.                   
Location of the affordable housing

Provision
of affordable housing sites in less strategic locations are give a impact to
the resident in term on the services provdied. The location must be in suitable
site not only in size but need close to catchment areas such as urban or
services area, LRT / MRT, monorail and railways is the one of the issue that
bring the constraints in the supply of housing stock in urban areas. As example,
affordable housing in Bandar Baru Sg. Long was develop by a Sin Heap Lee
Development Sdn. Bhd are located insufficient location which is far from a
urban area. The community need to travel 4 km to get a service at Bandar
Mahkota Cheras. The land for the development of affordable housing still cannott
adequate to provide optimum layout plans with appropriate facilities.

 

ii.                 
Rising of house prices

The
development of major urban areas has become dense. Demand for residential
property also exceeds supply. Due to the limited supply and the competitiveness
of obtaining the desired residence, it is a factor that induces prices to rise
indirectly. As land prices have risen, home price trends have also increased.
This is because to the shortage in land bidding to be developed as residential
area (Sinar Harian, 2014), is the on of the factor to rise of housing price and
affects housing buyers. Additionally, people in urban areas may prefer to
choose homes such as condominiums because of lifestyle choices and services
offered by residential areas such as more secure safety factors. Undoubtedly,
the price of land is the main factor that drives the determination of a home
price.

 

iii.               
Lack of land in urban area

Lack
of land for development in urban areas and competition with the industrial and
commercial sector has caused land prices to rise and so it became the main
problems faced by the private and government sectors in the construction or
provision of affordable housing. This problem became the starting point to a
lack of housing construction prices due to high land prices and the resulting
developer cannot cover the cost of construction (Marlina and Azrina, 2012). Due
to the lack of land, many developers want land within the city as it has
various facilities available. In addition, the density of development also
causes housing demand to be done within the municipal area. The suitable
location must be indentify through the services provided in surrouding area.

 

iv.               
The accessibility to the social facilities

Access
to social facilities and basic services is an important component for the
development of a livable housing. NPP 2 (National Physical Planning 2) has
established two specific policy of providing affordable housing to ensure
adequate community amenities including security facilities and services
provided. However, most of the affordable housing projects, especially in the
suburbs is not equipped with social facilities and are in a less secure
environment. Affordable housing should be provided with sufficient and capable
in possession until the need for quality housing environment that is conducive,
quality, safe and livable reached. The location of affordable housing must be
in the catchment area of the facility and easy access. It make resident easire
to get services.

 

1.3       Purpose
of Study

 

The
purpose of this research is to study the suitability location of affordable housing
for middle-lower income people.

 

1.4       Objective
of Study

 

The
objectives are defined as follows:

                         
i.                 
To identify the factor of location for affordable
housing.

                       
ii.                 
To access the suitability location for affordable housing.

                     
iii.                 
To analyze the perception of resident in terms location
of affordable housing.

                     
iv.                 
To proposed a guideline for the government agencies and
private sector to use the best technique for the location affordable housing.

 

1.5       Scope
of Study

 

Based
on the four (4) objectives outlined above, this study focuses on the
identification of affordable housing sites for the middle-lower income group.
The study was conducted on potential areas that will be analyzed through the
technique of Multi Criteria Decision Making, which is located in Green View
Bandar Sungai Long because it appears that this area has a high population as located
in Kajang District Local Plan 2020. In addition, surrounding study area has a
solid development because acceptance urban sprawl from Kuala Lumpur.

 

i.                   
Location factor of affordable housing

The
first scope of study focused on physical planning which is make a literature
review based on the factor of affordable housing in term of planning and
implementation of affordable housing. Findings will be summarized in the form
of issues, challenges and potential at the macro level. In addition, identify
issues, problems and potential of location affordable housing more particularly
to be taken into account in establishing the criteria for the selection of
affordable housing site and design criteria layouts affordable housing.
Furthermore will review and recommend policies or preparation methods inquiries
about development that is characterized by mixed development of high-density,
in the area of ‘Transport Oriented Development (TOD) and around the catchment
area of public transport, particularly LRT, MRT, monorail, rail train, etc.

 

ii.                 
Assessment of suitability location analysis

Identification
of the site will be created through a technique that are been used. The
selection of sites for housing the has the following criteria laid down by Department
Town and Country Planning (DTCP) as the distance between housing to employment
areas, the distance between the housing to facilities area, the distance
between residential to commercial centers and others. In addition, the
technique would be selected to analyze the best location for affordable
housing. There are several technique that would be selected and selected the
best one technique to apply of suitable location.

 

iii.               
Public Perception

On
the other hand, public perception also plays an important role in ensuring
location of affordable housing to be developed with the best quality of the
environment. Public perception also play an important roles because of they
know what the best for their self. Otherwise, the purpose of the survey was to
get the opinion of the residents about the location of this housing. In
addition, it can also be seen from the perceptions of home prices and the
ability of homeowners. Through surveys made to locals, we will also be able to
identify the key issues of affordable housing in determining the location of
the area.

 

iv.               
Proposed a guideline for suitable location affordable
housing

Moreover,
at the end of the study, the researcher will propose some suggestions to
further strengthen the location of affordable housing. The purpose of this
study is to make a planning standard for use by government and private
agencies. In other words, this location determination takes into account all
the criteria outlined by the government. Techniques to be used are more
accurate and effective.

 

1.6       Method
of Study

 

Research
methods for this study are as following description:

 

1.6.1    Data
Collection

 

There
are few methods to collect the primary and secondary data.

 

i.                   
Primary Data Collection

a.      
Obeservation method

Observation
method is used to obtain information on the actual situation at the study area.Otherwise,
the current situation of the affordable housing also can we know in term of good or bad
services. The information is collected through visual process. The result in a
systematic approach which covers a wide range of area and many aspects in the
study area.

 

b.     
Questionnaire Survey

The purpose of this questionnaire survey are to identify the perceptions
about location and price affordable houses. Otherwise, the issue of affordable
housing also need to get to the local people. This technique will be used to
collect data by using questionnaire. There also has a few question which is
about the information of respondents, problems faces and issue that relate to
the affordable housing

 

 

ii.                 
Secondary Data

Secondary data
is the type of data that has been collected and published by the agencies or
individuals. It serves as the second data to complement the data for research
and data collection work. Secondary data were obtained from two main sources
which include internal and external resources. An internal source documents
obtained from government departments and agencies and external source is the
document obtained from electronic media and printed media such as the annual
economic report, books, magazines, newspapers, private investigators, internet,
flyers and brochures. Departments and agencies involved in the collection of secondary
data are the Town and Country Planning Department, State of Selangor or any
planning guideline that publish by the government agnecy.

 

            1.6.2    Analysis Data

 

This
study will be carried out by using a GIS approach in analyzing the location of
affordable housing. Any information obtained from the interviews of respondent will
be use as evidence in this study. GIS software approach through techniques that
will be proposed will facilitate further research to find out the actual
location of the housing in a convenient location. It also includes data analysis
through observation which have been analysed and described in the table and
statement. The type and data analysis technique are as under:

 

i.                   
Analysis of Location Criteria Technique

Geographic Information
Systems is a computer-based tool that analyzes, stores, manipulates and
visualizes geographic information, usually in a map. There analysis are based
on the criteria that selected for the affordable housing. Otherwise, the data
in shapefile are also needed to be use in geographic information system when
the analysis are started. The analysis must use on the buffer distance related
to the criteria selected.

 

 

 

ii.                 
Descriptive Analysis

This technique is used to
describe information from the questionnaire and describe in the form of tables
which provides information in terms of frequency and percentage. In addition,
form of graphic diagrams were constructed to explain the information in depth.

 

1.7       Research
Framework

 

This
study focuses on the identification of the sites affordable housing for the middle-lower
income group through the technique that would be apply. This section focuses on
the research strategies and methods towards achieving the objectives set. The
flow chart shown in Figure 1.1, which containing four levels of work
procedures.

 

                         
i.                 
Stage I: Identifying the problem and scope of study

At
this stage describes the issues and the work process as a whole, which includes
an introduction to the location of affordable housing for the middle-lower income
group through the technique would be apply, discussion of the issue and the
problem statement, besides the stated goals and objectives, scope and
methodology of the study.

 

                       
ii.                 
Stage II: Reviewing the literature

This
stage will review in the planning aspect, management and implementation of
affordable housing in Green View Apartment Bandar Sungai Long. Otherwise, the
literature will look into the factor, technique and accessibility to afford
house. Assessment will be made to policies and development plans at the
national and state levels associated with affordable housing. Based on the
literature review, especially at the state and local issues, potential,
constraints and challenges in the implementation of affordable housing in study
area can be identified generally. It will be the baseline for the next stage of
the study

 

                     
iii.                 
Stage III: Data Collection and processing

This
stage is very important for the determination of Green View Apartment to be
studied. This chapter would fit the description of the background of study on
the macro development that exists in study area. The data collection is
conducted in two ways involving primary and secondary data. The primary data
comes from the observation, interview expert and questionnaire. In addition,
primary data were be conducted during in the study area and the also has a 1
day to interview and expert such as state, local agencies. On the other hand,
the secondary data will gated from the book, journal, booklets, internet,
masterplan and others.

 

                     
iv.                 
Stage IV: Analyzing the data and information

At
this stage, all primary and secondary data collected earlier were analyze in
form of explanatory data analysis which is based on objectives. Which means the
analysis will involve in developing causal explanation. The data was analyzed
by descriptive and empirical to meet any objectives that have been outlined.
For the location of affordable housing sites will conducted through a technique
selected, where it has criteria for site selection have been set. This is based
on the ability to solve problems involving the diversity of criteria or
considerations which are in conflict. This technique coincides with the needs
of research involving many stakeholders and criteria in the analysis. All forms
of analysis are summarized in the form of tables and graphs that can display
patterns and finding solutions to expectations. Otherwise, perception resident
also need to analyze to know the suitable location for the plan of the
affordable housing.

 

                       
v.                 
Stage V: Recommendation and Conclusion

At
this stage, the alternative is being created to improve the existing condition
by proposed a guideline the get a suitable location for the affordable housing.
Hence, proposal were made to address problems related to the study and
important to remain on track with what has been discussed at the beginning of
the study