and Financial Analysis of Grid Tied PV System for a Small Area Premise Using
Rahaman1, K.K. Borman1, M.E Hossain1, K.C. Ray1
of Electronics & Communication Engineering
Mohammad Danesh Science & Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh
To reduce pressure of the buring fussial fuel to generate electricity, solar
energy is best alternating source to produce electricity. Solar energy is alo safe
for environment. The main aim of this paper is to design, financial analyses of
a grid connected system and to reduce CO2 emission. We analyzed
different parameters of a solar system and proposed an 80 KW rooftop solar
plant which satisfy our need demand of electricity for an administrative
building of HSTU. The proposed plant produced annual 127.9 MW electricity and
annual reduction of 1541.940
of carbon footprint. The performance of the plant is measured by PVsyst
software. From PVsyst software simulation we found that, the system not only
satisfy our annual need demand of 60.5 MW but also we will be sold annual 67.3
MW electricity to the grid.
PVsyst, simulation, PV system, HSTU, CO2 emission.
have been habituated to burn fossil fuels to generate energy from long time
ago. It has become an alarming problem that climate has been changed day by day
due to increasing use of the fossil fuels. Burning coal,
petroleum and other fossil fuels is used to produce electricity, but which
pollutes two vital elements like air and water in our environment. Renewal energy is alternating source to
produce energy and it do not any bad impact to environment and keep safe of our
environment. With a population of 166.37 million, Bangladesh is a one of the
most densely populated country a. Rapid
urbanization fueled by stable economic growth has created a huge demand of
energy. In Bangladesh, the electricity comes from burning gas or fuel. The
utility electricity sector in Bangladesh has one National Grid with an
installed capacity of 15,379 MW as on February’ 2017 b. The Government
of Bangladesh has planned to increase power generation and the demand for
electricity in Bangladesh is projected to reach 34,000 MW by 2030.There is an
ambitious target to generate 2000 MW of renewable energy electricity by 2021
and whose at least 10% would be met from renewable sources including solar
power system c. For this purpose, the government is currently working to
install solar panel-based power projects connected with the national grid,
which will have a 572 MW capacity d. From the statistics of solar system use
in the country we assume that 1000 MW energy might be come from solar system to
meet the 2000 MW renewable energy target. There is an urgent need to employ
renewable energy in every possible form and move toward the sustainable energy
sector. Photovoltaic system is
one of the most important and premising technology that are able to produce the
electricity to meet the electricity demand of the whole world e. Since last
decade, the photovoltaic industry grows more than 40% per year due to decrease
in cost of PV system f. There are two effective systems for solar
photovoltaic plant design. One is stand-alone system and other is grid
connected system. Karki et al. have done an analysis for grid connected PV
system in Kathmandu and Berlin by using PVsyst software g. In the simulation
it is found that Kathmandu is able to produce more solar energy than Berlin
with the same system. Irwan et al. have done a study to analyze for a 150kW
solar power plant h. In the study it found that Cyprus has a high number of sunny
days in a year so investment of the solar plant is very effective. Shukla et
al. i performed the design and analysis of rooftop solar PV system for Hostel
building at MANIT, and determined the payback period of 8.2 years. Raturi et
al. j studied the grid connected PV system for Pacific island countries in
case study of 45 kW GCPV system located at the University of the South Pacific
(USP) marine campus in Fiji. Further, Dawn et al. k showed the recent
developments of India in the solar sector. Matiyali et al. l evaluated the performance of a
proposed 400 KW grid connected solar PV plant at Dhalipur and they calculated
server types of power loss and performance ratio of the PV system.Value of the
performance ratio obtained was 78.1% from the results practicality of the solar
photovoltaic power plant was discussed.
literature review, we found that PVsyst software is one of the best software
for simulation of sizing, optimizing, loss analysis and financial analyses of a
grid connected photovoltaic system m. In this paper we calculated
financial analyses and did a simulation with PVsyst V6.43 software. Proper sizing and calculation of grid connected PV
system is done for the administrative building of Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science
& Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. In most of the previous
research studies, we found that research has mainly been done in sizing and
optimizing of solar systems but cost analysis is not carried out. Thus this
research is aimed at fulfilling the research gap which is missing in previous
2.1 Geographical location of the site
Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science & Technology
University located in Dinajpur, Bangladesh. It lies on 25.70º N. latitude and 88.65º E longitude on
the eastern bank of the river Punarbhaba and 42 meter above sea level n.
The total area of the campus is 85 acres. The entire campus consists of administrative
and academic building, library, residential accommodation for students and
staff. The rooftop area of the administrative building is 1200 m2.
Figure 1, show how the sun impacts in the location of building throughout the
year. X axis show solar azimuth. Azimuth is the angular distance between the
south direction and the direction where the panels are facing. Y axis show sun
height that means how high sun in the sky in relation to horizon. In summer the
sun height is highest at 88º which occurs at the June solstice on the 22nd
June and lowest height of the sun is 37º on 22nd December.
2.2 Collection of irradiation data
Solar irradiation is the amount of radiation which
is received from the sun at the top of the globe’s atmosphere o. This
irradiation data varies with the season and weather condition of a day in year.
The monthly data of solar irradiation was collected from PVsyst software. Table
1, shows the monthly metrological data which was collected for the plant.
2.3 Design of
the proposed system
This section covers the significant aspects of the
design and simulation of the PV system. The different components of the solar
PV plant are shown in figure 2. In proposed plant model, Solar PV panel is an
electrical device which absorbs sun light and converts it into electricity. The
produced energy is direct current (DC) and the energy pass through the
inverter. The inverter converts the energy from DC to AC. Then the energy will
be supplied to the user. If the supplied energy is exceeded than the user need,
the exceeded energy goes to the grid. In bad weather, the grid supplies it to
2.3.1 Layout of plant: Total roof area of the
building is 1200m2. The selected panel for the plant is 320 W,
needed module area is 492 m2. The distance between each panel is
0.5. So, the ground coverage ratio (GRC) is 0.5. The map of area shown in figure
Land area calculation:
Land area = Module area / GRC
= 492 / 0.5
= 984 m2
2.3.2 Tilt angle: The tilt angle for the proposed PV
plant is 30º because the produced energy is highest at 30º tilt angle. Figure 4
shows, at 0º tilt angle the produced energy is 114 MWh per year and the
produced energy is increased with the increase of tilt angle. When tilt angle
is 30º, the produced energy is highest which are 127.9 MWh/ year. After 30º
tilt angle, the produced energy is decreased with the increase of tilt angle.
2.3.3 Solar PV module: There are different types of
solar module available in the market. For the large-scale plant,
polycrystalline modules are commonly used. For the proposed model, we used
polycrystalline based REC 320PE 72 modules for simulation. The array global
power is 96 kWp at STC and 96.1 kWp at operating condition (25ºC). Array
operating characteristics (50ºC) are Umpp 378 V and Impp 254 A. Degradation
rate of the REC panel is taken to 0.7%/year p. The parameters of proposed module are given
in the table 2.
2.3.4 Inverter: An inverter is a device which
converts DC power to AC power. It is very important to meet the inverter
specification with the PV specification which runs the system properly. Two
number of inverter are used to the proposed plant which rating is 33 kW. The
manufacturer corporation is AEG Power Solutions GmbH, having a model –
Protect-PV 33. The inverter has operating voltage 300-800 V and the unit
nominal power is 33.0 kW. There are 2 units of inverter to be installed and the
power capacity is 66 kW. The parameters of proposed inverter are given in the
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Plant configuration:
For appropriate sizing of grid connected system, the
proposed model was designed by PVsyst software simulation. The panels were
connected in series with 14 modules and 18 strings in parallel. Therefore,
total numbers of modules were 322. The required total module areas were 492 m2
for panel. Total cell area was 442 m2, this is the area where the
solar radiation absorbed. At the maximum power current of the system will be
about 152 A. The total capacity of two inverter had 66 kW which was used for
the proposed model.
The output of the PV system depends upon the
received solar radiation and temperature q. Figure 5 shows the array
voltage-current diagram of the photovoltaic module. The maximum power point voltage
will be 460 V at the 60ºC temperature whereas the maximum power point voltage
will be 570 V at the 20ºC temperature.
3.2 Need demand
From the analyses, it found that user need average
343 KWh per day. Table d shows daily average demand of energy is 670325 MW in
the March, April, May, Jun, July, August, September, October of a year. In November,
December, January and February, the demand of energy is comparatively lower
than the other month of a year which is 93596 MW. Figure 6 illustrates the
daily peak hour 9 to 11 AM where the maximum load occurs.
So, annual demand of the user is 125 MWh per year.
From table 3, it observed that the maximum energy supply to the user is in the
month of March, which is 8.633 MWh. The minimum supply to the user is in the
month of February, which is 1.828 MWh whereas the maximum energy injected to
the grid in the month of November, which is 11.01 MWh.
produced energy: 127.9 MWh/year
production :1586 kWh/year
ratio (PR) :80.0%
Fraction (SF): 48.3%
As we can see in figure 7, normalized energy, i.e.
kWh/kWp/day is shown per month. The collection losses of PV array are 0.79 kWh
per day and system losses per day is 0.29 kWh/kWp. The average of actual
produced energy per day is 4.34 kWh/kWp. The average value of the produced
energy per month is found to be minimum in the month of July, which goes as low
as 3.5 kWh/kWp, this is because of natural disaster such as rain, cloud weather
but this month losses are minimum. The maximum produced energy in the month is
March and November which goes up to 4.5 kWh/kWp.
In the system, the average performance ratio is
0.801, i.e. 80.1% which shown in the figure 8. The variation in performance
ratio is very negligible, but lower performance is observed in the month of May
which is less than 65%.
3.3 Loss diagram over the whole year
It is impossible to covert 100% energy
received from the solar radiation because of various losses. Figure 9
represents detailed losses occurred in the proposed model. It observed that the
net electricity production is around 127.9 MWh/year and the system does not
supply completely to load or to grid. This is because, the software assumes
that total load is distributed for every hour of the day for a complete month
and solar energy is not available for 24 h a day r. Around 67.3 MWh is supplied
to the grid and around 60.5 MWh to the user, while it takes 64.8 MWh from the
3.4 Economic analysis
3.4.1 Cost calculation: For proposed model of the
plant, cost calculation is very important. For the plant, we have calculated
the approximate cost in Bangladesh. Table 5 shows approximate cost of PV
cost: 252 units modules with 320 W/module and 50 TK per Watt cost.
cost: 2 units inverter with 33 KW and 35 TK per Watt cost.
cost: (Inverter + Module) * 10%
(4032000 + 2310000) * 10%
Maintenance cost: Table 6 shows that first 5 years
the maintenance cost is very low because first 5-year maintenance cost is
needed for cleaning the panel. After 5-year maintenance cost is increased which
shows in figure 10.
Yearly saving=local energy cost per unit * system
7.57 TK * (127.9 * 1000) KWh
Net yearly saving = yearly saving – yearly
= (968203 – 68494) TK
= 899709 TK
Payback period=net in investment (including tax) / yearly
8387295 / 899709
Profit = 25 -9.3 Year = 15.7 Year.
From the analyses, we found that the plant produced
energy is 127.9 MWh/year, out of which 67.3 MWh/year will be sold to the grid.
The total yearly cost will be coming out to be around 403986
with net investment including taxes (15%) will around 8387295
After sold energy, the cost of produced energy will be coming out to be 3.16
TK/kWh. Cost analyses using PVsyst software shown in figure 11.
3.5 CO2 reduction
With lower carbon emissions, the
adoption of renewable energy technology can help reduce global warming s-t. Solar PV GHG emissions are due to the energy spent during
the manufacturing of the panels us. CO2
reduction using PVsyst software shown in figure 12. Calculation
of carbon balance is as follows:
balance = (Egrid * life of plant * LCEgrid) – LCEsystem
= (127.9 MWh*25*584 gCO2/kWh)-176.1 tCO2
Now a day, electricity generation has become a major
challenge for a country. This design of the plant is performed with the help of
the PVsyst software. By the help of the PVsystem software, output of the needed
electricity, financial analyses and system losses are configured. The whole
study is focused to design and financial analysis of grid tied photovoltaic
system for small area. In the proposed system, 252 units module and 2 units
inverter are produced 127.9 MW electricity which satisfy our need demand. Performance
ratio of the system is 80.1%. In financial analyses, we found that institute
can not only satisfy the need demand but also earn profit to sell excess
electricity. This plant will be able to reduce 1541.9 tones CO2 in
its lifetime of 25years. This proposed plant is ideal to institute as well as
contribute of Bangladesh Government target of generate
2000 MW of renewable energy electricity by 2021.
1: Metrological data for HSTU admin building.
Table 2: Solar PV module specification.
REC 320PE 72
Open Circuit Voltage
Short Circuit Current
Table 3: Solar Inverter module specification.
Power Solutions GmbH
Minimum MPPT Voltage
Minimum Voltage for PNom
Maximum MPPT Voltage
Absolute max. PV Voltage
Table 4: Monthly user needed energy and total annual
December, January, February
5 days a week
April, May, Jun, July, August, September, October
5 days a week
Table 5: Approximate cost of PV component.
of module and inverter cost
of module and inverter cost
Table 6: Yearly maintenance cost.
Figure 1: Sun path for HSTU administrative building.
Figure 2: Block
diagram of the plant system.
Figure 3: Satellite view of HSTU administrative
Figure 4: Tilt angle Vs
Energy production graph.
Figure 5: Voltage- Current diagram.
Figure 6: Daily power
7: Normalized energy production.
Figure 8: Performance ratio of the system.
Figure 9: Loss diagram of the system.
Figure 10: Maintenance cost over 25 years.
11: Cost analysis
Figure 12: CO2 reduction
A. “Bangladesh Population 2018”,
http://worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved 19
sector in Bangladesh”, https://en.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 19 January,
“Bangladesh – Power & Energy”, https://www.export.gov. Retrieved 19 January, 2018.
“First-ever solar plant connects
to national grid”, http://www.dhakatribune.com. Retrieved 19 January, 2018.
Mellit and S.A.
Kalogirou, 2008. Artificial intelligence techniques for photovoltaic
applications: A review, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 34: 574-632.
Dalilah and Hasimah Abd Rahman, 2015. Pre-installation design simulation tool
for grid connected photovoltaic system using iterative methods, Energy
Procedia, 68: 68-78.
2012. An intelligent method for sizing optimization in grid-connected
photovoltaic system, Solar Energy, 86: 2067-2082.
2015. Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (SAPV) System Assessment using PVSYST Software,
Energy Procedia, 79: 596-603.
Sudhakar K. Comparison of BIPV and BIPVT: a review. Resour Efficient Technol
Raturi A, Singh
A, Prasad RD. Grid-connected PV systems in the Pacific Island countries. Renew
Sustain Energy Rev 2016;58:419–28.
Dawn S, Tiwari PK, Goswami AK, et al. Recent
developments of solar energy in India: perspectives strategies and future
goals. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2016;62:215–35.
Matiyali, Alaknanda Ashok, “Performance Evaluation of Grid Connected Solar pv
plant,” IEEE, pp. 1–5, 2016.
Margaret Amutha, W. and V. Rajini, 2015.
Tehco-economic evaluation of various hybrid power systems for rural telecom,
Renewable Energy, 43: 553-561
N. “Where Is Dinajpur, Bangladesh?”, https://www.worldatlas.com. Retrieved 19 January, 2018.
O. “Solar Radiation and the Earth’s Albedo”, https://www.thoughtco.com. Retrieved 19 January, 2018.
in REC panel”, https://www.recgroup.com. Retrieved 19 January, 2018.
Srivastava and Vinod Kumar Giri, 2017. Design of Grid Connected PV System Using Pvsyst, African Journal
of Basic & Applied Sciences 9 (2): 92-96, 2017
R. Mashail S. Arif, 2013. Residential Solar Panels and Their Impact on
the Reduction of Carbon Emissions, Reduction of Carbon Emissions using
Residential Solar Panels.
S. Sudhakar K, Rajesh M, Premalatha
M. Carbon mitigation potential of Jatropha Biodiesel in Indian context. Energy
T. Sudhakar K, Srivastava T,
Satpathy G, et al. Modelling and estimation of photosynthetically active
incident radiation based on global irradiance in Indian latitudes. Int J Energy
Environ Eng 2013;4:21.
U. Shukla KN, Rangnekar S, Sudhakar
K. Mathematical modelling of solar radiation incident on tilted surface for
photovoltaic application at Bhopal, MP, India. Int J Ambient Energy