Features & Technologies
The transportation of crude oil by vessel was originated approximately
1850. The first oil tankers were single hull two
sail-driven tankers. In the early 1970s a Very Large Crude Carrier
(VLCC) may have taken two years to build and in today modest VLCC can be built
in eight to nine months. In this time too, hundreds
of crude oil vessels moving around the world without any trouble with the power
of modest technologically improvements.
The larger size vessels mean the price of shipping
the oil has fallen to roughly 5-10 percent of the price per barrel. Therefore,
vessel producers increase the tanker size every year. Usually current ultra-large
crude carrier (ULCC) is designed around 1,300 feet long and capacity of 500,000
Air lubricant system
Mitsubishi company designs their
modest crude oil ships using that air lubricant system. The technology is
reduced 13% of fuel consumption by reducing friction between hull and water.
Bubbles are generated by shipping and then create a layer of air between the
ship and the water, reducing drag drastically and increasing speed and
Automated crude oil tank cleaning
That technology completely cleaning the sludge from
the interior of large oil tanks and then washing the crude oil system clearly.
The technology saves the cost of manpower as well as risk of the workers. Crude
oil ships have been introduced the technology in year of 2007.
Automated Navigation System
since 2010, crude oil ships used advanced automatic
navigation system which allows to sail 24 hours a day without manual operation.
Especially these are used in VLCC carries.
This technology enables ships to navigate long beach
channels safely. Therefore, this allow ships to arrive to the port with deeper
drafts and heavier load. So, this technology leads to less pollution, less
congestion and better use of port infrastructure.
The specific feature of Long Range (LR) class oil
tanker is that ships carry both crude oil and refined products. After 2000
large ships (LR) demand has been increased because these type ships can access
largest port and take more benefits through that competitive advantage. The speed of the crude oil ship has been
gradually increased due to the new technologies and high power of engines with
the time. In 2000 VLCC average speed was 14.5 and in today it is around 18.00.
Prices and Lifetime
Prices of crude vessel is directly depending on size,
capacity, other features as well as technologies which used in the vessel. The table shows that the market price of branded
vessels in 1985 & 2005. which are basically correlated size (DWT)
According to the worldwide vessel
data in 2005, oil tankers average lifetime was 10 years. 31.6% of
them were under 4 years and 14.3% were over 20 years old.
The table shows that the lifetime of large size of
crude oil ships. But in today ship manufacturers expect more than 35 years life
time from crude oil ships because now they use corrosion resistant steel for
hull and also tanker compartments.