Firstly, Renaissance paintings, especially in its secular forms,

  Firstly, the Renaissance and Humanism had an
impact on the paintings with the contributions of the artists which caused
people to be under the impression. Painting has begun to be rebuilt in new
styles with respect to the techniques used by these artists including da Vinci,
Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian and Botticelli. The portray of the natural world
was taken to new stages with the aid of these artists. They mastered the
earlier techniques and then took the art to new levels with their depictions of
the material world and their representations of the appropriate features hidden
inside the outward look. While utilizing the techniques, they inserted hidden
messages which were often political, moral, or based on religious allegories. In
the Renaissance paintings, especially in its secular forms, artists started to
depict visually coded expressions of humanistic philosophy inclusive of
symbols, structures, postures and even colors in order to transmit silent
messages about humanity and nature.1 For
instance, the Creation of Adam which was depicted by Michelangelo Buonarroti,
as seen in the figure one2,
contains the God in an object looking like a brain. Frank Lynn Meshberger claims that “Michelangelo
portrays that what God is giving Adam is the intellect and thus human being is
able to plan the best and highest and to try all things received.”3

1: Creation of Adam; fresco by Michelangelo on the ceiling of the Sistine
Chapel in Vatican City.   Secondly, another field that changed people’s
point of view is the literature affected by Renaissance and Humanism. Writers
which include Boccaccio, Petrarch and Montaigne used comprehension obtained from
Latin and Greek texts in order to develop literature that had the elegance and
beauty of classical authors, but become greater intensely private than ever
When the literature was characterized by making use of the restoration of the
classical literature of antiquity and the adoption of a Humanist philosophy as
well as the artists did in their paintings, also the world was taken into
consideration from an anthropocentric attitude. Themes like secularism and the
true nature of man started to be adopted.5  As mentioned by Magwell, the earliest writers and philosophers of
the Renaissance, in particular Petrarch, identified the duration from which
humanity had simply emerged as a “dark age” where classical traditions had been
rejected.6 As
a response to the medieval tendency, secularism, at the time of the
Renaissance, exhibited itself inside the improvement of humanism, while human
beings started to expose more interest in human cultural achievements and the
opportunities in their fulfillment.7 Although
a small segment of the population has benefited from ideas in their works in
the beginning, the invention of the printing press by way of Johannes Gutenberg
endorsed authors to write in their local language in place of in Greek or Latin
classical languages, widening the reading target audience and promoting the spread
of Renaissance thoughts.    Finally,
the field of science during the Renaissance had a serious impact on human
beings with the contribution of bringing new ideas as a result of the new
methods applied after considering the antiquity. Robert Curley asserts that the
Renaissance was a crucial period, as scientists started out developing not only
a more enlightened view of the world, however additionally concepts and methods
that could guide the generations in expanding their scientific understanding.8 For
instance, Polish mathematician and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus released one
of the major scientific discoveries of the Renaissance. In the 1530s, he
published his theory of a heliocentric solar system. Galileo Galilei, who was
another important scientist, advanced the telescope and discovered new
celestial bodies and determined guide for a heliocentric solar system. He
carried out motion experiments on pendulums and falling items that paved the manner
for Newton’s discoveries approximately gravity.9
Furthermore, Da Vinci made scientific drawings including the Vitruvian Man as
seen in the figure two10 which
reflects the humanist spirit. The main purpose was to bring together thoughts
about artwork, architecture, human anatomy and symmetry in one distinct and dominant
picture. The drawing gave idea about how to form a square with the same area as
a given circle by placing the human at the center. Thus, the artwork had the
ideal of Humanism by showing how man is the measure of all things. Idealism and
realism essential to the classical corpus were additionally a feature employed
by using scientific humanism in its depiction in the Vitruvian Man. Scientific humanism
aimed the improvement of human dignity as an expression of God’s supremacy.
This aspect of Renaissance humanism advanced from the union of classical study
on the perfection of man and medieval Christian culture and became influential
in the enlargement of individualism.11

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1 Robert Grudin,
“Humanism and The Visual Arts,” Encyclopedia Britannica, October 25,
2017, accessed November 29, 2017,

2 Michael Salcman,
“The Creation of Adam by Michelangelo Buonarroti,” Neurosurgery,
December 1, 2006, 11.

3 Frank Lynn Meshberger,
“An Interpretation of Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam Based on
Neuroanatomy,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, October
10, 1990.

4 Andrew Dickson,
“Key Features of Renaissance Culture,” The British Library, March 27,
2017, accessed November 30, 2017,

5 Jessie Szalay,
“The Renaissance: The ‘Rebirth’ of Science & Culture,”
LiveScience, June 29, 2016, accessed November 29, 2017,

6 Margaret Magwell,
“Measure of a Man: Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man,” 2006, 6.

7 The Editors of
Encyclopedia Britannica, “Secularism,” Encyclopedia Britannica,
October 14, 2008, accessed November 30, 2017,

8 Robert Curley,
Scientists and Inventors of the Renaissance (New York: Rosen Publishing, 2012),

9 Jessie Szalay,
“The Renaissance: The ‘Rebirth’ of Science & Culture,”
LiveScience, June 29, 2016, accessed November 29, 2017,

10 Walter Isaacson, Leonardo da Vinci (New York, NY: Simon &
Schuster, 2017), 32.

11 Margaret Magwell,
“Measure of a Man: Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man,” 2006, 7.