Human Development Index is a composite index of level of human
development in the country, so sometimes it is used synonymously with such
concepts as “quality of life”. The HDI measures the achievements of
countries in terms of health, education and actual income of its citizens, in
three main areas, which are their indexes:
1. The index of life
expectancy: health and longevity, measured by average life expectancy at birth.
2. Education index: access to
education, measured by average expected years of schooling for children of
school age and the average duration of schooling in the adult population.
3. The index of gross national
income: a decent standard of living measured by gross national income (GNI) per
capita in US dollars at purchasing power parity (PPP).
The UN currently accepted
classification for two countries. Firstly, all countries are divided into three
1) economically highly
2) developing countries;
3) countries with economies in
transition (from a planned to a market
According to the second UN
classification there are two large groups of countries:
1) economic developed
There are sixty economically developed countries, they are :
USA, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Israel and some
European countries. They are characterized by a high level of economic
development, the predominance of GDP in the manufacturing industries and the
service sector, high standard of living of the population. Because of the
heterogeneous nature of the economically developed countries, they are divided
into several subtypes:
1. the main countries – USA,
Japan, France, Germany, Italy, UK. They give more than 50% of all industrial
production and more than 25% of agricultural products in the world. Major
countries and Canada is often called “the Big seven”. (In 1997,
Russia was admitted into the Big seven, which turned into a “Big eight”.)
2. economically developed
European countries – Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Austria, Scandinavian
countries, etc. these countries are characterized by political stability, high
standard of living, highest GDP and the highest rates of exports and imports
per capita. Unlike the home countries, they have a much more narrow
specialization in the international division of labor. Their economy is
increasingly dependent on income derived from banking, tourism, intermediate
trade, etc .;
3. the countries of the
“resettlement capitalism” – Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South
Africa – former colonies of great Britain and the state of Israel, established
in 1948 by the decision of the UN General Assembly. A characteristic feature of
these countries (except Israel) is the preservation of international
specialization in the export of raw materials and agricultural products. Unlike
the developing countries the agrarian-raw materials specialization is based on
high productivity combined with a developed internal economy.
Countries with a medium level
1. Mediterranean European
countries: Greece, Spain, Portugal, Ireland. The level of development of
productive forces, they are behind modern technological progress. Spain and
Portugal in the past was the largest colonial empires, played a big role in
world history. But the loss of the colonies led to the loss of political
influence and the weakening of the economy, which was held on the riches of the
2. Countries with economies in
transition CIS countries, Eastern Europe, China. They conduct conversion, aimed
at the development of market relations in the economy instead of centralized
planning. This sub-group of countries stood out in the 1990-ies in connection
with the collapse of the world socialist system. The subgroup includes
countries with considerable differences (see note) developing countries
developing countries UN classification include all other countries of the
world. Almost all of them are located in
Asia, Africa and Latin America. It houses more than ¾ of the world’s
population, they occupy more than ½ of the land area but they account for less
than 20% of the manufacturing industry and only 30% of agricultural products of
the world (data from 1995). For developing countries the characteristic orientation
of agriculture for export, which puts the national economy of the countries
dependent on the world market; mixed economy; a special territorial structure
of the economy, scientific and technological dependence on developed countries,
the sharp social contrasts. Developing countries are very diverse. There are
several approaches for allocating subtypes within this group of countries.
During the last ten years there were a
lot of changes in HDI. For example 40
countries have made significant progress in this rating.
The best dynamics of
development in the past years Libya has demonstrated, the rise in 23 places in the index from 87 to 64
place, thus becoming the first country on the African continent, which is ahead
of Ukraine, just over 1 year coming out of the crisis of 2011, and raised her
index to 0.725 0.769 (2nd indicator in the history) and the worst dynamics of
the we can see in Portugal indicators -3
positions, and it established in 43rd position.
At the time of Ukraine’s
independence, HDI was higher than the European and Central Asian.
After the collapse of the
Soviet Union, its republics gained their own economy, which government leaders.
The destructive economic processes occurred in my country, which had a negative
impact on quality of life from 1990 to 2000 . As you can see it in 10 years
have fallen (from 0.714 to 0.673). According to the report of UN Georgia and Belarus are progressing.
According to the “human
development Report – 2013” On the UN, the five leaders in the studied
index was formed, composed of Norway – 0.955, Australia – 0.938, USA – 0.937,
the Netherlands – 0.921 and Germany 0.920, and the worst performance are Niger
and the Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.304. Ukraine got 78 place, which she
shared with Macedonia, Peru beat us with an index of 0.741, and behind the
countries of Europe left only Moldova and Bosnia and Herzegovina index and 0.660
0.735, respectively. In respect of the republics of the former USSR, the best
performance in the Baltic countries that are EU members, for example in
Estonia, he is 0.848, which are not EU members the best index belongs to
Belarus – 0.793, the worst performance from Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan at 0.622.
The highest our indicator of
the standard of education is always a positive impact on the image of the
country, because in a world rating of literacy we take the 29th place, the
economic indicators that determine the level of life of the population (0.615 –
Ukraine, for comparison, our neighbor, Belarus – 0.723), have a negative impact
on the index of human development, rejecting our state ranking average rates of
Latin American countries.
Despite negative dynamics in
the rating among countries in the study index (2010 – 69 place 2012 -78), it
becomes clear that, subject to deterioration in the quality of
education(availability), the preservation of the current state of the economy
and medicine – our country geographically situated in Europe will continue to
yield in world rankings, countries with less developed parts of the world.
Since 1993, the UN forms an
annual report on the development of humanity. The essence of this paper is to
study the HDI for the countries of the world, the main criteria which are: life
expectancy at birth, literacy rate and standard of living of the population of
the world, which is estimated using GDP per capita, and other tangible indicators.
Over the last 10 years among
countries in the world indexes of human development in most countries has
improved (decreased to 0.639 0.694), and 40 countries have made significant
progress in this rating.
The best dynamics of
development in the past year Libya has demonstrated, a rise of 23 places in the
ranking from 87 to 64 place, thus becoming the first country on the African
continent, which is ahead of Ukraine, just over 1 year coming out of the crisis
of 2011, and raised her index to 0.725 0.769 (2nd indicator in the history) and
the worst dynamics of the studied index belongs to Portugal -3 positions, as
established by 43.