Literature before researching the relevant literature. They must

Literature Review Draft




Why Carry out a Lit Review:

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A literature review is an objective and thorough
summary and critical analysis of the relevant, available research and
non-research literature on the topic being studied (Hart,1998). The researcher
must first select a review topic before researching the relevant literature.

They must then gather, read and analyse the literature before writing their
review and referencing the information. The Green Heron Information Services website
believes that a literature review ‘demonstrates a strong knowledge of the current
state of research in the field or topic and shows what issues are being
discussed or debated or where research is headed.’ It summarises a well-written
literature review as a ‘mental road map’ of the past, present and future of
research in a particular field. Similarly, The Suny Cortland website believes
that ‘the major purpose of reviewing the literature is to determine what has
already been done that relates to your topic and it also gives you the
understanding and insight you need to place your topic within a logical frame.

Simply, the review tells you what has been done and what needs to be done. I
will review literature which gives a clear understanding of what an ethical
classroom is, and where the concept of an ethical classroom emerged from. I will
also look at how an ethical classroom environment can be created within a
school and gain a brief insight into the ethical classroom linked to my subject
of Business Studies.




What is an Ethical


“Ethics” is derived from the Greek word “ethos” which
means “character” or “conduct”. Ethics is not limited to the actions or
behaviors of an individual but includes practices of a profession, an
organization, a government agency or a corporation (Donald, J. 2016). When
deliberating the definition of the term “ethics”, individual teachers, parents,
and administrators each have a unique view according to their own lived
experiences and positioning (Davies & Harre, 2001). Researchers continue to
argue that the teacher education field should approach professional ethics in
ways similar to other licensed professions, such as psychology, medicine, and
law, with direct teaching on the topic, and explicit statements regarding the


and privileges of clients, patients, and practitioners
(Barrett, Casey, Visser, & Headley, 2012). However, Dr. Bruce Weinstein
says there is a big fear out there that somehow teaching ethics in school will
seep into a student’s particular religious viewpoint. He does concede that it
is impossible not to teach ethics in school and it is taught in the school
classroom everyday.


Rosanna Pittella believes that an ethical classroom,
like a good home, is ideally a place of learning, sharing, trust, nurturing,
personal and spiritual growth, and peace. In a school setting, ethics includes
both an individual’s actions and the school community’s choice to act or govern
(Sullivan,1986). The code of Professional Conduct for Teachers echoes the words
of Pittella by setting the ethical foundation for the teaching profession. This
is encapsulated in the values of Respect, Care, Integrity and Trust that are
reflected throughout the Code. These core values underpin the work of the
teacher in the practice of his or her profession. Already, we get an impression
from previous research that an ethical classroom is based around the basic
principles of caring, trusting and respecting every person within the classroom
to ensure an ethical environment is possible. To further this, when classrooms
have climates of mutual respect and caring, students feel greater physical and
psychological safety, leading to a greater sense of belongingness (Anderman,
2003; Ma, 2003). Donald Jones believes that in order to have an ethical
community or classroom you must prescribe a particular form of ethical
community in which the ‘good society’ is one in which workers are allowed to do
their work without interference from fellow workers. The ‘good person’ is one
who acts in accord with supporting this purpose. (Jones 2016)


Pittella believes that a teacher must teach beyond the
rules in an ethical classroom. In order to approach the ethical codes of
conduct, she depicts a scenario whereby you form an agreement with your
students describing a certain standard of behaviour which are necessary for the
greater good of all. Every member of the classroom community should be
unconditionally accepted, supported and respected in order to allow the
classroom to be an ethical one. An ethical classroom is more likely to be
created if the students imitate the actions of the teacher, and the teacher is
carrying out all actions morally. However, it is more likely that primary
school students will see their teachers as role model rather than secondary
school students. The Ethos Methodology Guidelines believes that teachers are no
longer an unquestioned authority when students move to a post primary school. A
survey conducted by the German magazine P.M. History (2007, quoted from NA
Presseportal) found that students between 14-19 see their friends and family as
role models, not their teachers (16%).




Where has the concept
emerged from:


The concept of ethics came from the Sophists in the
Ancient Greek Era followed by Socrates who is the founder of Science of Ethics.

Plato (427-347 B.C.) was the next person to further the concept of Ethics, a
friend of Socrates who took passion on the concept after his friends death.

Aristotle then continued on the idea of ethics and defined political science as
the highest of all sciences. Hobbes (1588-1679) was the founder of modern
ethics followed by the most important name in modern ethics Immanuel Kant
(1724-1804). He believed that ‘a person should act on that principles, and when
everybody act like that principles become a universal law.’ His most important
teaching is that “morality of an action depends only on the motive, and is
independent of the effects on the person doing it or on the others”. From all
of the efforts of these people Ethics has got to the position where it is
today, preached by many people throughout Ireland, and throughout the world.






How to Create an Ethical


Giselle Weybrecht asks the question of whether ethics
can actually be taught? He then goes on to answer this question and explain the
different ways in which ethics can be taught. The one way that caught my eye
was the method of teaching beyond what is right and what is wrong and going
further by looking at the impacts and reasons for any decisions made (Weybrecht
2016). The Ethos methodology guidelines states that a standard of behaviour can
be greatly supported by teachers acting in the correct manner within the
classroom in order to act as a role model for the pupils.The time to start is before the
semester begins when instructors plan their courses. What are going to be the
standards for the course, the workload and ethical expectations? (Prohaska,
2012). It states that teachers play a vital part in role modelling for
their pupils, who learn from, and imitate their behaviour. Albert Bandura’s
(1963) theory of observational learning helps us to grasp an understanding into
the components of pupils observing and imitating the behaviour of teachers. He
believes that students pay attention to the actions of teachers and then retain
that information. The students should then reproduce this behaviour and enforce
it in their everyday lives.


In order for this to work effectively, teachers must
act in a moral manner to set the example for the students. Kohlberg’s theory of
moral development can be followed in order for this to occur effectively. The
Online Resources for Psychology Students states the three stages in this theory
that teach a person to act morally. The first stage is the preconventional
stage which involves an infant or preschool child learning to see what is the
right and wrong thing to do by means of rewards and punishments. The
conventional stage is the stage that involves school children and shows that it
is important to follow the fixed rules set out for them and to know that it is
important to make an effort to maintain friendly relations with others. The
final stage is the post-conventional stage and is most relevant to my teaching
as it deals with teenagers. This stage allows students to mature and realise
the utilitarian rules that make life better for everyone. They see that
morality is based on principles that transcend mutual benefit. If teachers
begin to apply these rules and principles within the classroom, students are
more likely to act in a moral manner, creating an ethical classroom. Also, research has consistently
demonstrated that another very important factor in whether students behave
honestly is their perception of their peers’ behaviors (Caldwell, 2010; Engler,
Landau and Epstein, 2008; Jordan, 2001; McCabe & Bowers, 2009; McCabe,
Butterfield & Treviño, 2006; McCabe & Treviño, 1993; Pulvers &
Diekhoff, 1999; Whitley, 1998). If students believe that other people are
cheating, they might also feel that they are able to cheat. On the other hand,
if the majority of students are acting morally, the rest of the students are
likely to follow.



Ethics in my subject of
Business Studies:


Business Studies is possibly one of the most relatable
leaving certificate subjects to the importance of Ethics in today’s world. Both
the students in Junior cert and Leaving cert Business Studies touch on the
concept of Ethics. Obviously, a lot of the students that take on Business
Studies as a subject learn about the ethical manner in which companies should
act, which is something that a lot of these students could partake in
throughout their working careers. As discussed in the Cadbury Schweppes case
study, students should be aware that the ethical behaviour of a business may
attract customers to the products of the firm, make employees want to stay with
the firm, and also attract outsiders to want to work for the firm.


Luanne Kelchner talks about the employees within the
Business acting in an ethical manner, which is similar to the way in which a
student should take an ethical approach within a classroom. He says that
ethical behaviour among workers in an organisation ensures that the work is
carried out with honesty and integrity, which is likely to lead to the
employees meeting their goals. Also, he says that the management of an
organisation should ensure that they are rewarding the employees that are
carrying out the job with an ethical approach. This will motivate the workers
to continue to do so. Speaking on the Chron website, David Ingram is in
agreement with this and says it is very important for all employees to fully understand the
expectations of the company and the ethical guidelines in which to make
decisions. If these guidelines are followed, the employee has successfully
carried out their duties in an ethical manner. Also writing on the Chron
website, Brian Hill states that employees are perceived as team players rather
than just individuals that are out for themselves. If all of these employees
are working together in a team and taking ethics into consideration when making
decisions, the environment is likely to be positive within the organisation.



The subject of
Business Studies is effective in showing that it is important for the students
to act ethically in their community and within the classroom. The subject makes
it clear that it is important for Businesses to carry out their activities with
a process that involves acting ethically when making day to day decisions. The
students see that an ethical company can build a very positive reputation and
the students might realise, that they can also build a positive reputation for
themselves by behaving ethically. The six sigma website raises the point that a
bad reputation is created by unethical behaviour which can eventually lead to
falling stock prices, anxiety, and low morale among employees, as well as
government and public scrutiny and inquests. Conor Breslin of the azcentral
website similarly says that ‘One of the major advantages of behaving in an
ethical manner is the opportunity to foster a sense of goodwill among the
general public toward your business. Customers are increasingly concerned with
using products produced in an environmentally sustainable manner. The Santander
website further the argument when they write in their Corporate and Commercial
piece that ethical companies tend to be viewed positively by customers. When
students learn this type of information in in Business Studies, it is helping
them to learn how to act in an ethical manner and the benefits that can arise
from them acting in this way in the classroom.









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