Management interfere with protected areas or scientific research,

Management and regulation

Tourism in the Arctic is
expanding, and the Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME) is
looking at measures and guidelines to promote sustainable marine tourism (NMCE 2016b). The Protection of the Arctic Marine
Environment Working Group (PAME) has conducted an assessment of Arctic shipping
that use/ carriage of heavy oil fuel (HFO). PAME has also assessed the need to
designate areas in the high seas area of the Arctic Ocean that warrant
protection from the risks posed by shipping, and has identified possible
measures to reduce the risk of environmental damage. Tourism poses a risk to
the environment and is also a human risk in the event of a serious shipping
incident in which the many thousands of tourists on a single vessel are likely
to strain rescue operations (Triggs 2011). In response to the concern that
tourists adversely affect the places they visit, IAATO developed a code of
conduct for tourists that attempts to minimize their effects on the
environment. Visitors on board IAATO member expeditions are reminded, for
example, to stay with the group when ashore and to leave nothing behind, and
cautioned not to disturb wildlife, walk on fragile plants, interfere with
protected areas or scientific research, enter historic huts unless escorted by
an authorized person, or smoke during shore excursions (Bauer and Dowling 2003).

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Additional IAATO
guidelines require tour operators to be familiar with the Act and to abide by
it, to be aware of protected areas, to enforce the visitor code of conduct, to
hire a professional team of expedition leaders, to provide a qualified
lecturer/naturalist guide for every 20–25 passengers to supervise small groups
ashore, and to limit the number ashore at any one place and time to 100 passengers
(Bauer and Dowling 2003).  

In the Arctic, growing
concerns about the relationship between tourism and the environment have begun
to be addressed through the World Wide Fund for Nature’s Arctic Tourism Project
(1995–2000), which aimed to use tourism to promote conservation and to maximize
benefits of tourism to local communities (Humphreyset al. 1998; Mason 1997). Furthermore, a
number of communities and governments have implemented restrictions appropriate
to their individual circumstances and concerns for example, such as Svalbard.
The implementation and effectiveness of efforts has become an additional focus.
A combination of codes of conduct and an evolving legislative framework  has much to offer an Arctic-wide strategy (Johnston 1997). Along these lines, the approach to
nature management in Svalbard, commonly touted in Norway as the best managed
wilderness in the world, offers insights for arctic management (Stewartet al. 2005).

Polar code : The
polar code that enters into the force from 1 January 2017 related to the
protection of the environment in flowing ways.

(i)             
It applies to ships operating in arctic waters:
additional to existing  MARPOL1 requirements

(ii)           
It provides for safe ship operation and
protects the environment by addressing the unique risks present in polar waters
but not covered by other instruments

Specific to the, discharge
into the sea of oil or oily mixtures from any ship is prohibited, double hull
and double bottom required for all oil tankers, including those less than
5,000dwt (A/B ships constructed on or after 1 January 2017), heavy fuel oil is
banned.  Ships are encouraged not to use
or carry heavy fuel oil in the Arctic, Consider using non-toxic biodegradable
lubricants or water-based systems in lubricated components outside the
underwater hull with direct seawater interfaces. Measures to be taken to
minimize the risk of invasive aquatic species through ships’ ballast water and
biofouling. No discharge of sewage in polar waters allowed (except under
specific circumstances. (discharge is permitted if ship has an approved sewage
treatment plant, and discharges treated sewage as far as practicable from the
nearest land, any fast ice, ice shelf, or areas of specified ice concentration).
Sewage not comminuted or disinfected can be discharged at a distance of more
than 12nm from any ice shelf or fast ice. Comminuted and disinfected sewage can
be discharged more than 3nm from any ice shelf or fast ice

All disposal of plastics
and animal carcasses is prohibited. Discharge of food wastes onto the ice is
prohibited but food wastes which have been comminuted or ground (no greater
than 25mm) can be discharged only when ship is not less than 12nm from the
nearest ice shelf, or nearest fast ice. Cargo residues, cleaning agents or
additives in hold washing water may only be discharged if: they are not harmful
to the marine environment; both departure and destination ports are within
Arctic waters; and there are no adequate reception facilities at those ports.

Discharge of noxious
liquid substances (NLS) or mixtures containing NLS is prohibited in polar
waters.

Fairbank declaration
2017, welcomes the entry into force of the Polar Code to ensure
safe and environmentally sound Shipping in the harsh Arctic marine environment,
and encourage continued engagement by Arctic States, to facilitate harmonized Implementation
and enforcement of the Polar Code. It also welcomes the Arctic Protected Area
Indicator Report, adopt the Marine Protected Area Network Toolbox, and
encourage additional work to help implement the Framework for a pan-arctic Network
of Marine Protected Areas in order to strengthen marine ecosystem resilience And
to foster the conservation and sustainable use of marine resources.

1 International
Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)