Neurophysiological factorsIntroduction Criminal behavior has been proven to have biological factors that leads to crime.Research done in the last few decades has shown a link between the brain and behavioral disorders, between genetic variation and antisocial behavioral patterns, and the biological characteristics and environmental influences in understanding and explaining human behaviorBiosocial perspectives on criminality leads to Neurophysiological factors that may lead to crime.Neurophysiology is the study of brain activity . There are many different ways to measure neurological functioning which includes memory tests , visual awareness tests and IQ tests.These tests are used to distinguish offenders from noncriminal control groups.Electroencephalograph (EGG)Electroencephalograph (EEG) is the most important function in neurophysiological function.EEG records electrical activity of the brain . These records can idenfity abnormalities in brain wave patterns. EEG tests shows higher rates of abnormal electrical activity in aggressive offenders than other offenders and non-offenders. EGG ratings are normally taken after a crime which shows slow EGG activity which can be caused by being caught rather than the crime caused .Minimum brain dysfunction (MBD) Minimum brain dysfunction is a neurological impairment of brain functions that affects people’s perception, behavior, and academic ability.MBD can cause an imbalance in the urge-control mechanism, dyslexia , visual problems, hyperactivity, poor attention or explosive behaviourAttention deficit hyperactivity disorderAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has also been linked to neurological factorsADHD is found in children who show poor school performance, bullying, stubbornness, and a negative response to discipline.Difference Between Classical and Positivist School Introduction: Within history, there have been numerous attempts to explain criminal behavior through what we would now refer to as ‘pre-scientific’ theoriesCriminologists look at a range of topics when studying criminal behaviour . They are interested in the causes and the social impact of the crime . Criminologist take all aspects into account , such as : the victim, offender, environment, social dynamics, frequency, location as well as the individual,government and organisational responses to crime. The end goal is to determine the root causes of criminal and deviant behaviour and to develop effective human preventions The following will evaluate the assumptions and limitations of both The Classical and Positivist school .Definition of Key Concepts Classical School Early 18th Century,argued that human problems should be addressed by applying reason Positivist School Late 1800’s was a latent response society’s lack of concern about the causes of criminal behaviour. Used scientific approach Classical School It main objective is to improve the justice system by implementing punishment proportionate to the crime but sufficient enough to deter further acts of crime and to avoid the unnecessary suffering and ensure a quick and effective process. Assumptions of Classical School People are rational, self- interested and calculating beings, who possess free willJail is for reform , where an attempt to restore rational thought process take place.Social contract: We accept protections of person and property and on return we agree to abide by the rules and laws of society.Behaviour is guided by hedonism Hedonism is a pain and pleasure techniqueCriminal justice should have strict laws with a proper legal system and legal code.This code should be predictable, fixed and severe enough to deter Limitations of classical school Ignores individual circumstances. Free will is limited by circumstances ( Poverty, immaturity).Neo-classicists: person responsible for owns actions with consideration of past and present circumstances. Professionals were called in to identify impact of biology, psychological and social factors in order to determine extent of responsibility of offender.Leaned toward individual sentences based on individual circumstances .Positivist School Used empirical evidence to measure causes of crime.Believed external forces such as biology, psychology and sociological issues contributed to causes of criminal behaviour.Less interested in legal process and on the treatment of crime rather than the punishment Also known as the predestined actor modelThis intends to individualise justice and eliminate criminal behaviour by identifying and eliminating its causes through prevention and rehabilitation Assumptions of Positivist School Rejects notion of free will. They argue that behaviour is predisposed and determined biologically.Gender plays a role in crime.Levels of testosterone in men make them more prone to crime Criminals can be scientifically studied, diagnosed, classified and treated.Treatment must be individualised.Diagnosis and classification of offender must be taken into account when placing into custody Evaluation Both schools contributed substantially to the study if criminology and criminal behaviour. The classical school viewed criminal behaviour as a deliberate activity resulting from rational decisions after weighing up the pros and cons of committing crime , but failed to take individual circumstances into account. Coleman and Norris pointed out the notion that all people are equal before the law and able to male equally rational choices is flawed.Examples are children and the mentally ill are unable to form logical, free willed and rational choices. The positivist school believed individuals are not responsible for their actions and do not possess free will. It claims that people are passive and controlled and that crime is a consequence of biological and environmental conditions. The theory fails to take into account human decision making, rationality and choices.