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The Parthenon is a primarily Doric temple with some Ionic features. It has 8 x 17 columns, where each short side has two rows of columns. The internal space is filled by a cella split into two areas, the naos and sekos. Each short side features a triangular pediment, columns and a frieze of Doric order. There is a continuous frieze along the cella which is of Ionic order.

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The Temple of Apollo at Didyma stands in contrast to the Parthenon, where the Parthenon was regarded as the pinnacle of Greek architecture and particularly of the Doric order, the Apollo was under construction for centuries and was never finished. It didn’t have a pediment, cornice, and many of the sculptures and large columns were unfinished. The Didymaion was built around a natural spring, as were it’s two predecessors. Because of the fact that the temple had to be built around this spring, the centre of the temple needed to be at ground level. 
In temple designs, the centre is dedicated to a cella where a statue of a deity is usually held. The temple is expanded around this central area with columns until the desired size is reached. The cella is also raised from the ground as there are possibly multiple layers of stylobate.
The Didymaion was designed to look entirely like a normal Greek temple from the outside, but this caused issues with other elements of the temple’s design. Notably that the cella would have to be at ground level, as the appearance of a Greek temple calls for a stylobate which would raise the structure off the ground. The temple kept the stylobate and raised areas but had the cella be at ground level anyway.

Thus the Didymaion differed from the Parthenon in many ways. The style of both were typical Greek temples, where the Parthenon featured a single row of columns from the outside and a primarily Doric order, and the Didymaion featured two rows of columns and an Ionic order. The form of both were similar in some ways. Both were structured around the basic concept of a Greek temple which is to house a central area, often referred to as a cella or naos, and both feature some combination of columns and entablature. Where they differ most is the cella. The Parthenon features a standard cella, where the Didymaion has a cella that is below the the base of the temple and is not covered by a roof. The Didymaion also has two tunnels that run down the side of the cella, creating a passageway between the base and the cella.

The Ancient Mesopotamian and Indian Buddhism civilisations each had a specific type of monumental building which they used to communicate with the gods. 

The Mesopotamian civilisation of the Sumerian people were the first examples of the structure called a ‘Ziggurat’. A ziggurat is a large structure usually with 3 sets of stairs and one large elevated platform. The Great Ziggurat of Ur has a ~60m2 base and is estimated to have been over 30m tall. The most common building material of the Sumerian people were mud-baked bricks. These bricks were stacked on top of each other and sealed with more mud. 
Ziggurats served the purpose of an elevated platform for religious structures. They were seen as exclusive areas and thus entrance was restricted to only priests (and gods).

The Indian Buddhist civilisation featured a monumental building type called ‘Stupa’. Stupas originated from a different religion where deceased practitioners were buried in seated form. This resulted in a hemispherical mound shape. Stupas were related to Buddhism when Buddha’s remains were cremated and buried in eight different mounds. Stupas throughout the Buddhist religion are symbolic representations of this original burial of Buddha. 
The earliest stupas were likely built from non-durable materials like wood or soil, however, later stupas were built from brick and stone. One of the earliest known stupas, ‘The Great Stupa’ was originally constructed from brick but was later doubled in size with stone.
Basic stupas consist of three main features, the mound, a central pillar, and the railing surrounding it. More complex stupas also feature an enclosure wall and a circular terrace on which rituals could be performed.

These monumental buildings differ from each other significantly in their form and materiality. The ziggurat stands in great contrast to the stupa where the stupa ranges from the size of a human to ~10m tall, and the ziggurat is over 10m tall and usually has a base of 30-60m on each side. They are, however, somewhat similar in their materiality. Ziggurats are of course built of sun-baked bricks, and a range of stupas are partially constructed by bricks, however, most are made of stone as stupas originated long after ziggurats (