RESEARCH REPORT BY: VEERAJ MISHRA To start off this report I would like to clarify what will be in it. This report will define the 2 main types of nuclear bombs, atomic bombs and hydrogen bombs, and tell you how they work. Nuclear bombs are devastating weapons capable of destroying big cities. Think of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The destruction and radiation aftermath was crippling. Yet the bombs dropped on them are considered small bombs in our modern society. These bombs are both a curse and blessing being a symbol of power and protection. The scientists who made these were geniuses indeed and this report will show you why. The bomb I will show you first is an atomic bomb, also known as fission bombs. Although they are the older type of nuclear weapon, they are still in use. The way they work is through nuclear fission. Nuclear fission can be either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process where the nucleus of the atom involved splits into smaller parts. When the splitting occurs it releases an immense amount of energy.In fission bombs the nuclei involved are of a heavy element such as plutonium or uranium. The isotopes used in atomic bombs are uranium-235 or plutonium-239. When a neutron hits the nucleus of these isotopes it makes the nucleus split in 2 pieces, these fragments are each a nucleus that contain about half the protons and neutron that the original nucleus contained. When this process occurs, an incredible amount of thermal energy is released, gamma rays and two or more neutron will also be released. Scientists load the bomb with an overload of enriched fissile material usually uranium because it can create a chain reaction of fission, this reaction will be self sustaining. Now, as you read above when 1 fission occurs it releases immense energy. In a chain reaction this is multiplied as multiple fission events occur. The chain reaction occurs due to the escaping neutrons from one fission striking another nucleus. This process is what we use in nuclear reactors except in a reactor this is controlled. In a bomb it isn’t because we need to maximize destructive power. Moving on, this section will be about hydrogen bombs and how they work. A hydrogen bomb is a type of nuclear bomb that is also called a thermonuclear bomb or H-bomb. A hydrogen bomb detonates using a different process than an atomic bomb. The hydrogen bomb uses nuclear fusion, so instead of splitting the isotopes combine. Nuclear fusion is a reaction that involves 2 or more atomic nuclei, these nuclei come close together and fuse to create one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles. In the case of an H-bomb, the nuclear fusion happens with hydrogen to form helium. Like the atomic bomb the explosive power comes from an uncontrolled, self-sustaining chain reaction. So when the 2 light atomic nuclei (hydrogen) combine, they form a heavier nucleus (helium).