Table of Contents
SECTION A.. 2
is a collection of individuals who have regular connection and frequent contact,
mutual guidance, common feeling of companionship, and who work together to
achieve a common set of goals (group, n.d.).
There are various ways of classifying groups, for example in terms
of their purpose or configuration;
and secondary groups.
and emergent groups (Smith, 2005,2008).
of group behavior identified in this case;
of two or more people: In this case there are more than two people that forms
the group. In this case there are 7 people including the leader. Those people
were selected by the presidents of those three companies who formed the joint
goal or interest: They have the same goal to redesign the pet caskets
identity: In this case each one has their own identity in different fields, in
their related field. Example from marketing, purchasing, IT, etc…
Jose has been appointed as a chair of steering task force. So, Jose has been
set as the leader of the group.
understanding: In this group each one understands each other very well, and
respect their view of the point, that is very rare.
Everyone participated in the discussion of redesigning the product. Discussed
between them, but all came up with the idea of benefits of using existing
They asked Jose to consider the idea of using existing design to the three
presidents of three company, would be better instead of making a new design.
and status: Each member of the group has a status and a role to play in the
group, to achieve the goal.
of formal group;
specific goals for the organization: A formal group sets specific goals for the
personnel working in it.
working relationship: Their primary goal is to establish an effective working
relationship and to establish a clear chain of command.
group cohesiveness: Creating a sense of cohesiveness and belongings among the
groups of the personnel working in the organization.
development: They work on the organizational development by testing all the
rules and regulations and the chain of activities as a present.
They has to find a proper way to achieve proper discipline, as discipline is
important to get the best result.
resource development: They gives the opportunity to treat human resources
within the organization.
organizational credentials: It establishes organizational credentials among the
different parties within and outside the organization (rasel, 2013).
of group development
This is the initial stage of knowing each other. The group forms and learns
what sort of behavior is acceptable to the group members as a group.
Storming: This is a crucial stage in the
development of group because difference amongst group members emerge.
In this, the conflicts that arose in the storming stage are addressed and
resolved. Group unity emerges as members establish common goals.
After the issues has been solved, the group begins to operate as a unit. The
structure of the group now supports and eases group dynamic and performance.
When time period of the groups, that are constituted for a given period of time
end, the group has to complete its task and it is disbanded.
and comparatively long-lasting change in behavior through experience,
instruction, or study. However individual learning is selective, group learning
is essentially political its outcomes depend largely on power playing in the
group. In the words of Harvard Business School psychologist Chris Argyrols,
learning is “detection and correction of error” where an error means
“any mismatch between our intentions and what actually happens.” (learning, n.d.).
group denied the action of redesigning the coffin by saying it better to use the
existing coffin. They said that redesigning it would cost much to the company.
They disagreed with the idea of redesigning the product. They didn’t think in
the view of organization. They didn’t think about company’s view of point. They
didn’t want to discuss about it much, so they ended the meeting in 45 minutes.
And they asked Jose to write a memo saying it’s better to use the existing
Stimulus is the
source of motivation or incentives. Learner should be clear about stimulus.
There will be no learning takes place if there is no stimulus is not
understood. Such stimulus can be –
of knowledge, skills and abilities,
quality of work life,
It is the reaction of learner
towards the stimulus. To take place the learning, learner should have positive
response. Employees should be allowed and encouraged to practice the
It is the drive to encourage
individual to learn. Without it learning cannot take place. This provides
interest and attitude to learn.
These are incentives satisfying the
motive. There should be proper reward system in learning process.
Employees should know what will be their return or rewards when they
learn at different levels (Chimoriya, n.d.).
It is the association of one event
with another desired event resulting in a behavior. Experiment conducted by
Ivan Pavlov, the Russian psychologist, on dogs and tried to establish a
Stimulus-Response (S-R) connection. He tried to relate the dog’s salivation and
the ringing of the bell. In his experiments, he put some meat in front of dogs.
The dogs responded to this stimulus by salivating. This response was
instinctive or unconditioned. Pavlov next began to ring a bell at the same time
as the meat was presented. Ringing the bell in itself, without the presentation
of meat, was not connected to any responses. But by ringing the bell at the
same time as presentation of meat, Pavlov established a relationship between
the two stimuli-the bell and the meat- in the mind of the dogs. By continuing
this process, the ringing of bell alone was sufficient stimulus to elicit a
response of salivating, even when no meat was presented. Thus, the bell became
a conditioned stimulus, resulting in conditioned or learned response.
It is defined as behavior that produces
effect. Operant conditioning is based on the work of B.F. Skinner who advocated
that individuals emit responses that are rewarded and will not emit responses
that are either not rewarded or are punished. Operant conditioning argues that
behavior is a function of its consequences. Behavior is likely to be repeated
if the consequences are favorable. Behavior is not likely to be repeated if the
consequences are unfavorable.
cognitive learning theory is Edward
Tolman. He developed and tested this theory through controlled experiments.
Using rats in his laboratory, he showed that they learnt to run through a
complicated maze towards their goal of food. It was observed that rats
developed expectations at every choice point in the maze. Thus, they learnt to
expect that certain cognitive cues related to the choice point could ultimately
lead to food.
In This individuals can also learn
by observing what happens to other people and just by being told about
something, as well as by direct experiences. This theory assumes that learning
is not a case of environmental determinism or of individual determinism. Rather
it is a blending of both (Sinha, n.d.).
are learned predispositions and represent cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings
and behavioral intentions towards aspects of our environment like a person,
object or event. Attitudes are evaluative statements either favorable or
unfavorable concerning objects, people or events and are a persistent tendency
to feel and behave in a particular way toward some object.
were in Jose’s position I would tell everyone that what would be the benefits
of redesigning the product, how it would be less cost to manufacture the new
design. I would tell how easy it would be to produce the new design. And it
would be much easier to produce the new design and costless. I would tell them
how it would benefit the company and themselves if this design is being made.
of good leadership:
A good leader would be able to establish an honest connection with his or her
to delegate: Each person in a group will be able to bring something different
to the table, and a good leader will work with each member’s strengths and
to communicate: Clearly describing the idea to the team, the leader will be
able to create a sense of ease and understanding with his peers.
of humor: Negative conditions will always arise, but a good leader will know
how to diffuse them and help give his team peace of mind.
A good leader will inspire confidence in his team by reminding them that
obstacles are just there to be overcome.
A good leader should constantly be at their sides, giving every task their
one hundred percent.
attitude: A good leader will keep team’s spirits up, will be able to motivate
them to achieve more, and not let them be bothered by minor setbacks.
A good leader will demonstrate a unique type of creativity that can help his
team push through any situation.
to inspire: A good leader will demonstrate his ability to lead and inspire, by
motivating his team to share his vision.
A good leader will show that he is giving the problem everything he have got,
it will inspire his team to do the same, which can often be just all that is
needed to help get past the situation to begin with (Deen, 2013).
Note: I would
suggest Jose to conquer all these qualities to his working style, to become a
is what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and
other biological factors, e.g., what inherit from our parents. Nurture is
usually taken as the effect of external factors after conception, e.g., the
product of exposure, experience and learning on an individual (McLeod, 2015).
Hierarchy of Needs
This theory is
based on a simple premise of human beings having a need that are hierarchically
ranked. Once a lower level need is satisfied, it no longer serves as a
needs refer to the need for food, water, and other biological needs. These
needs are basic because when they are lacking, the search for them may
overpower all other urges. Once physiological needs are satisfied, people tend
to become concerned about safety needs, job security. On the
next, social needs refer to the need to bond with other human beings,
be loved, and form lasting attachments with others. The satisfaction of
social needs makes esteem needs more salient. Esteem need refers to
the desire to be respected by one’s peers, feel important, and be appreciated.
And the last, self-actualization need. This need manifests itself by the
desire to acquire new skills, take on new challenges, and behave in a way that
will lead to the attainment of one’s life goals.
developed by Clayton Alderfer, is a modification of Maslow’s hierarchy of
needs. Alderfer, C. P. (1969). Instead of the five needs that are
hierarchically organized, Alderfer proposed that basic human needs may be
grouped under three categories. It is Existence, this refers to Maslows’s
physiological needs and safety need, then relatedness refers to social needs,
and Growth corresponds to esteem and self-actualization. ERG theory’s main
contribution to the literature is its relaxation of Maslow’s assumptions.
Herzberg came to the conclusion that aspects of the work environment that
satisfy employees are very different from aspects that dissatisfy them.
Herzberg came up with two factors that affects motivation. They were Hygiene
factors and Motivators. He labeled factors causing dissatisfaction of workers
as “hygiene” factors because these factors were part of the context in which
the job was performed, as opposed to the job itself. And motivators are factors
that are intrinsic to the job, such as achievement, recognition, interesting
work, increased responsibilities, advancement, and growth opportunities. These
are the conditions that truly encourage employees to try harder.
Leadership is the
activity of leading a group of people or an organization or the ability to do
1. establishing a clear vision.
2. sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly.
3. providing the information, knowledge and methods to realize that vision.
4. coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of all members and
U.S. President, Lawyer, U.S. Senator (1961- )
Barack Obama was the 44th president of the United States, and the
first African American to serve in the office. First elected to the presidency
in 2008, he won a second term in 2012. He was Born in Honolulu in 1961, Barack
Obama went on to become President of the Harvard Law Review and a U.S. senator
representing Illinois. In 2008, he was elected President of the United States,
becoming the first African-American commander-in-chief. He served two terms as
the 44 president of the United States.
Barack Hussein Obama II was born on August 4, 1961, in Honolulu,
Hawaii. His mother, Ann Dunham, was born on an Army base in Wichita,
Kansas, during World War II. Dunham’s mother, Madelyn, went to work on a bomber
assembly line. After the war, the couple studied on the G.I. Bill, bought a
house through the Federal Housing Program and, after several moves, ended up in
Obama’s father, Barack Obama Sr., was born of Luo ethnicity in
Nyanza Province, Kenya. Obama Sr. grew up herding goats in Africa and,
eventually earned a scholarship that allowed him to leave Kenya and pursue his
dreams of going to college in Hawaii. While studying at the University of
Hawaii at Manoa, Obama Sr. met fellow student Ann Dunham, and they married on
February 2, 1961. Barack was born six months later. After several months later
Obama’s parents officially separated and ultimately divorced in March 1964,
when Obama was two (Editors, 2017).
Leadership Qualities of Obama;
He spoke at
Tucson after the shooting and at the Sandy Hook Elementary School after the
killings. He spoke at the funeral of Senator Daniel Inouye. He spoke at Nelson
language is framed using “us” and “we.”
campaign used the slogan “change we can believe in.” No matter which
controversial topic Obama is taking a stand on today, chances are he comes
across as believable to many of the people he’s asking to support the stance.
He had online
call tool that helped supporters make millions of calls from personal
Endings into Beginnings:
referencing the Affordable Healthcare Act, “This was a good day for
America. Let’s get back to work.” Obama celebrates ends with a begin (Calhoun, 2015).
Calhoun, L. (2015, 6 30). 5 Leadership Lessons
from Obama. Retrieved from inc.com:
Chimoriya, B. (n.d.). Learning in OB: Importance,
Process, Components, Theories, Factors Influencing, Principles. Retrieved
Deen, A. (2013, 12 5). 10 Must-Have
Characteristics Of A Good Leader Infographic. Retrieved from
Editors, B. (2017, 12 7). Barack Obama
Biography.com. Retrieved from Biography.com:
(n.d.). Retrieved from businessdictionary.com:
(n.d.). Retrieved from businessdictionary.com:
(n.d.). Retrieved from businessdictionary.com:
McLeod, S. (2015). Nature vs. Nurture in
Psychology. Retrieved from simplypsychology.org:
rasel. (2013, December 15). 7 Major Functions of
Formal Organization. Retrieved from bankofinfo.com:
Sinha, K. (n.d.). Top 5 Theories of Learning –
Explained! Retrieved from yourarticlelibrary.com:
Smith, M. K. (2005,2008). What is a group?
Retrieved from http://infed.org: http://infed.org/mobi/what-is-a-group/