The techniques and camera work can greatly affect the quality, depth, and the message conveyed to the audience in cinematic films and film history. The history is quite interesting and the techniques include lighting, angles, and the many various video effect. Of this techniques, one of the most important is the tone and mood. Basic TechniquesFirst off, what are tone and mood? Essentially, it’s the feeling of the film, it can be dark, adventurous, comedic, etc. The tone should align with the genre of the film, and what the film is about. Mood can affect the viewers comprehend the film, and what they think of it. For example, a scary tone can go very well with a comedic genre. Some examples include the Gremlins movies that had a box office of $194.6million USD. Mood and tone can also affect how the viewer receives the message. For example, a bright and happy mood is set in a beginning of a film, a romantic one where two people meet and date each other, however, when things go south, it turns out one of them was a psychopathic serial killer, when this is revealed, the mood and tone goes dark and horrifying. Most of the mood can be done naturally for movies, using correct camerawork, lighting, and angles, however, depending on what type of film is being made, one may need to use special effects. An example of this is using a video editing software program called “Final Cut Pro X,” by Apple, if one install the plugin “motion FX,” one can set the mood to different tones. An easier way to think of this is by thinking of this effect as a filter. These “filters,” are called luts. A better definition of this term is “A LUT (Lookup Table) is essentially the modifier between two images, the original image, and the displayed image, based on a mathematical formula. There are different types of LUTS – viewing, transform, calibration, 1D, and 3D. The three colorists go into a lot of detail on all them.”(Elwyn)(www.smallhd.com/community/free-lut-arapaho) Another technique that affects the film significantly is the camera angle. The angle that the camera is placed on can change depending on the scene. The angle also gives perspective as to what something of the size would see. Some examples are the view from a city above, it would give the perspective of a bird or plane, (Bachirm), or a view from 1st(Hardcore Henry), or a low angle shot(Pulp Fiction). Complex TechniquesIn monster movies like Godzilla and Kong: Skull Island, the angles, and perspective shows the magnitude of enormous, but fictional creatures like Godzilla and King Kong. However, for films like these, effects are needed more than angles, because, while with angles one can show how big a fictional creature can be, one can’t really make it look real without using special effects and CGI(Computer Generated Imagery). To make these special effects work their magic and make any fictional being or object look real, one needs to think about what is being made first, and whether it’s on a small scale or large? For regular people sized beings, a person can wear a special suit. After the camera has done its part in the recording, the layers of effects and CGI are overlapped to make a final scene.(Iron Man 2) For larger scales, the process is the same, but props are used. (Game of Thrones, Behind the Scenes)(Game of Thrones). In some cases, props are not used at all, and off work is done through layers of CGI and series of visual effects. Lighting TechniquesMoving on, lighting. What is lighting in terms of a movie set? If someone were to search it up on google, they’d probably get this: “Lighting in Film. … THREE-POINT LIGHTING This is the most basic lighting setup. It consists of a KEYLIGHT, a FILL LIGHT, and a BACKLIGHT. The KEYLIGHT aims directly at the subject –most likely the main character or object in the shot – and is the brightest light source for the shot.”(www.slideshare.net) This is pretty accurate to what it is. While lighting can be used as a general term, on a film set, there are so many different types of lighting. This is also true for photography. Natural lighting usually consists of having light from the sun, or the moon. Artificial lighting usually consists of light coming from any non-naturally occurring source, like flashlights, the lights in a room on the ceiling, even the light that comes off our phones. These terms, natural and artificial lighting are just what the light source is, but where the light comes from and lands on the subject sprouts into numerous definitions. There’s background lighting, lighting coming from the back of a subject, regular front a top lighting, and lighting from the sides. Depending on the mood of the film, the choice of whether to use natural or artificial lighting depends on its genre. For example, natural lighting is commonly used in happy, comedic, romantic genres, and artificial is commonly used in dark, sci-fi, thriller, and horror genres. However, this isn’t true for all movies, a horror flick could use artificial lighting for most of the film, but in the case, it has a happy ending, it can end up using natural lighting. More Complex TechniquesThese were just some of the most basic but also some of the most important techniques used. Some of the more complex effects include glitches, makes the screen seem like its glitching with the different colors(usually green and red)(YOICHI KOBAYASHI), distortion, distorts the screen and makes the subject look stretched or compressed(www.store.pixelfilmstudios.com/product/pronoise/) , screen swipes, transitions that go from one screen to another by moving the old scene on direction and bringing in the new one from that opposite direction.(/www./store.pixelfilmstudios.com/product/translice-glide/) , etc. The actual effect is pretty easy to place depending on if its a premade one. But to make them, one need transcoding software, because these effects take up a lot of space, so using a transcoding software will compress it. Something else that may not be easy is knowing when and where to place them. This again depends on what kind of film it is, and the genre. Glitches can be used for more cyberpunk sci-fi movies, but it can also be used for many other genres. Techniques used in other types of Media Cinematic techniques like the mentioned above aren’t just used for short films and mainstream movies. They are also used in many other types of media, including music videos, wedding event videos, promotional ads, movie trailers, and so much more. Music VideosMusic videos have more interesting techniques used because it’s usually aligned with the song the artist made. The video is made in such a way that it gives the same message that the songs do. These videos can also have a deeper meaning depending on what is included in the video. Whether the song is about money, sex, and drugs, or world peace, the success the artist has made, or the hardships of their life and life in general, all the way to just having fun, and love, the video can be whatever the artist envisions. With a lot of rappers, it’s about drugs, sex, money, and success, so most of their music videos include them lip syncing, holding cups of alcohol, smoking weed, and stacks of money, surrounded by their friends and women. With rappers who rap about hardships, the video is usually more dark, sad, and actually kinda depressing in the beginning. However, in the cases that they include how success came to them, the mood changes to a brighter, happy, and powerful feel. With these type of videos, the message is more like “you can find success and get through hardships just like I did.” An example of this is Meek Mills Dreams and Nightmares music video. In the beginning of the song, it starts off with a piano playing, no percussion, with Meek rapping about some of the dreams he accomplished. The video gives off the same vibes, showing how Meek accomplished his dreams. After about a minute, the beat changes dramatically, with percussion added in, a deep bass, and a bell here and there. He starts to rap about a reality that is a nightmare, and the scene quickly follows as dramatic events happen, starting off with a van pulling up close to Meek, with men in masks coming out of the doors. (Meek Mills Dreams and Nightmares Album Cover) Film History To fully understand cinematography as is, it’s helpful to know its past. The first film to ever be made was The Horse in Motion by Eadweard Muybridge, in 1878. Then came a revolution with the film A Trip to the Moon by Georges Melies, with its creativity for a film of its time. From 1878 to 1927-28(depending on the source), films had no sound. These films from this time period were known as silent films and are still quite popular today. As cameras, acting, and the world began to advance in terms of entertainment and technology, so did the films. Over the past 9 decades, blockbusters such as King Kong, Godzilla(1954), The Bank(Charlie Chaplin), Superman, Batman, Jurassic Park, and even Toy Story and Happy Gilmore have all become the result the advancements in the film industry. Film FranchisesFranchises such as the Marvel Series, the DC series, and the Predator/Alien/AVP series are considered to be the dreams for any brands involved in the film industry. Take Marvel, for example, it started its movie franchise with the release of Iron Man, followed by The Incredible Hulk. 16 movies followed, including Captain America, Thor, and more recently Thor: Ragnarok. The strategic plan to make these box office hits is impressive. Phase 1 was to give an origin to some of the main superheroes, Phase 2 was to introduce new ones and have them team up, and Phase Three is leading up with the release of The Avengers: Infinity War, where most of the superheroes will fight together to defeat a common enemy, with the Black Panther movie coming in less than a month.(www.thereshootrewind.com) IronMan, Hulk, Iron Man 2, Thor, Captain America: The First Avenger, The Avengers(www.thereshootrewind.com) IronMan 3, Thor: A Dark World, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Guardians of The Galaxy, Avengers: Age of Ultron (www.reddit.com) Captain America: Civil War, Doctor Strange, Guardians of the Galaxy: Vol. 2, Spiderman: Homecoming, Thor: Ragnarok, Black Panther, Ant-Man & Wasp, Captain MarvelCinematography Cinematography has changed, and evolved throughout the last 9 decades, and with these decades came some of the best films to have ever been made. With these films, new and creative techniques were made that, when looked at by an audience, makes them feel and think in a spiritual, emotional, logical, physical, and psychological level. These techniques won’t fade out for a couple of more decades, but as time progresses, newer, and more advanced techniques will takeover.”Cinematography.” Variety, 9 Feb. 2004, p. A9. General OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A113418236/GPS?u=nysl_ca_capreg=GPS=cb6de422. Accessed 21 Jan. 2018.Miner, Jan. “The art of cinematography: what it’s all about.” Back Stage, 13 Feb. 1987, p. 4B+. General OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A4685079/GPS?u=nysl_ca_capreg=GPS=a8cc1f3d. Accessed 21 Jan. 2018.Young, Gary. “Cinematography – the window on the world approaching its 100th anniversary.” Back Stage, 14 Feb. 1986, p. 3B+. General OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A4135734/GPS?u=nysl_ca_capreg=GPS=1b8025e8. Accessed 21 Jan. 2018.”Cinematography: the analysis.” Daily Variety, 13 Feb. 2006, p. A17. General OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A142873976/GPS?u=nysl_ca_capreg=GPS=841857c5. Accessed 21 Jan. 2018.Works CitedCharreau, Leslie. “Can Cinematography Influence Audiences ?” The Belgian Society of Cinematographers, 25 Nov. 2017, www.sbcine.be/?p=1579.”Cinematography Techniques You Didn’t Learn in Film School.” StudioBinder, 12 Jan. 2018, www.studiobinder.com/blog/cinematography-techniques-no-film-school/.”Final Cut Pro X – Film Distortion Effects – ProNoise.” Pixel Film Studios, store.pixelfilmstudios.com/product/pronoise/.”Final Cut Pro X – Sliding Split-Screen Transitions – TranSlice: Glide.” Pixel Film Studios, store.pixelfilmstudios.com/product/translice-glide/.”Marvel Cinematic Universe – Phase Three • r/Marvelstudios.” Reddit, www.reddit.com/r/marvelstudios/comments/74fnlt/marvel_cinematic_universe_phase_three/.MrBeastRex. “Meek Mill – Dreams and Nightmares.” YouTube, YouTube, 28 Oct. 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=r_yT5LVf5G0.”Part 3: Cinematography.” Film Analysis, filmanalysis.coursepress.yale.edu/cinematography/.Renée, V. “5 Techniques That Create Depth & Make Your Cinematography More Dynamic.” No Film School, 1 Dec. 2014, nofilmschool.com/2014/12/5-techniques-create-depth-make-cinematography-more-dynamic.Reshoot, An article by. “Podcast: Marvel Cinematic Universe Phase 1.” Reshoot ; Rewind, 18 Nov. 2015, reshootrewind.com/2015/05/08/reshoot-rewind-podcast-1-marvel-cinematic-universe-phase-1/.Reshoot, An article by. “Podcast: Marvel Cinematic Universe Phase 2.” Reshoot ; Rewind, 18 Nov. 2015, reshootrewind.com/2015/05/09/reshoot-rewind-podcast-2-marvel-cinematic-universe-phase-2/.”What Was the First Movie Ever Made?” Heads Up by Boys’ Life, 16 Nov. 2017, headsup.boyslife.org/what-was-the-first-movie-ever-made/.