The Are the Longest,” n.d.). The Pecos River

 The Evolution
and History of Bridges all start when bridges were just logs that
would be laid across a gore to be crossed. Over time, man builds
bridges using wood and stones due to the development of technology. Ancient Romans were the greatest bridge builders of ancient
times. They built arch bridges and aqueducts some of which still stand today. Some
of their most beautiful bridges were built over ravines while others were built
over rivers where no rock or island emerges from the water to carry the piers (Historical
Development, n.d.). They are made up
of cement to build their bridges. A lot of bridge when over ravines and others
where no land emerges from the water to carry the
heavy load. The Chinese oldest surviving stone
bridge is the Zhaozhou Bridge. It was built from 595 to 605 AD during the Sui
Dynasty. It is also it the world’s oldest stone segmental arch bridge built
with open spandrels (Historical Development, n.d). The British developed bridges that
were made out of iron and steel and able to carry heavy weights during the
Industrial Revolution when people thought up a lot of ideas of how to move
things from shore to shore. 

Pecos River, the?river?in the southwestern?United States, rising in Mora County,
north-central?New Mexico, in the?Sangre de Cristo Mountains, and flowing about 926 miles (1,490 km) through
eastern New Mexico and western?Texas (Singh, Tikkanen,,1998).The Pecos River is
surrounded by wildlife. It is used for Drainage basin in New Mexico. It’s not
extremely wide but is the 17th longest main-stem river in
the United States and Canada (What Are the Longest,” n.d.). The Pecos River has
two big interstates; US highway 67/385 crossing. It connects to the Rico
Grande, one of the other longest rivers in the US. 

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The Tied-arched bridge is a long beam bridge
with a giant arch going across it. Tied-arch bridges are a mixture
of a suspension bridge and an arch bridge. Vertical ties hold up the
bridge and have an arch on each side of the bridge. They use vertical ties to
hold up the bridge and the reduce to the foundation’s weight and force on the
abutments is low. A Cantilever bridge is similar to a tied-arch
bridge. Cantilever bridge is built using cantilevers, structural
elements that are supported on only one end and that, from there, project
horizontally into space. They are usually made from a pair of continuous spans
that extend from opposite sides. Cantilever bridge is constructed similarly to
beam bridges but physics work differently (Different Classification, n.d.). The Cantilever
bridge is made up of concrete and large cantilever bridge used to be railroad
traffic and is like beam bridges. Cable-stayed bridges are similar to
suspension bridges and also use cables but their form is different, they have
fewer cables and towers that hold cables are much higher (Different
Classification, n.d.) Cable-stayed bridges sit upward using the cables to
hold up the deck of a cable-stayed, this bridge is similar to suspension
bridges. Beam bridges –
main structural element of a beam bridge is a horizontal beam that is supported
at each end.
Beam bridges are mostly across the short distance of water. They are
supported by piers that hold up a flat horizonal beam.

These
are factors in which bridge will stand in area. Compression is the
push(compressing) force on objects. Trusses are used to spread out the
compression that is pushed on the bridge. Truss help a bridge from buckling. This
helps the bridge from collapsing down because of the weight. Tension pulls
objects apart from each other. Also, unlike in compression, the ability of
objects to resist tension does not change with its length. Tension is what
happens to string being pulled from each side. Torsion is the twisting force on
at object, mostly for suspension bridge but wind makes the bridge move with
enough wind in twisting force. This could cause bridges to break apart. Applied
force is the push, pull, drag force of an object. This is between mass and
acceleration. The object will accelerate as
long as the force is being applied (Applied Force, n.d.).

Dead
loads are the bridge itself, its all the parts and materials made into the
bridge. The dead load doesn’t move. It may breathe with the seasons
or sway with the wind, but those movements are almost imperceptible (Dickinson,
n.d.). Live Loads
are a load that holds the moving weight the bridges hold, like for example,
transportation. It is based on traffic patterns that include the number of
cars, trucks and other vehicles that will travel across it at any given time.
Certain variables, such as snow, may be calculated into the total live weight
for a more accurate estimate. The heaviest possible weight in the most extreme
conditions is also a factor despite the rarity of such an occurrence.
(Dickinson, n.d.) Wind loads are dynamic loads, they are
loads that can handle extreme and wild weather.

It depends on the type of material you use to
make a bridge but mostly it’s just concrete bridges or steel bridges. Concrete
bridges have from the amount of weight and all the traffic that goes across it.
Stress make the bridge wore out and break down. As shown, in the Figure 2.1 in
Nondestructive testing, the concrete has worn out and has become broken down
(Probability of Detection, n.d.). In Probability of Detection, it shows the
steel part of the bridge is rusted due to weathering. Steel bridges are strong
bridges but they are easy rust and mold because of weathering.  Bridge
approaches typically experience two types of settlement, global and local (Bridge
Design, n.d.). Global settlement consists of a consolidation of the
underlying natural foundation soils, and is evidence of possible long-term
differential settlement between the bridge structure and the bridge embankment
(Bridge Design, n.d.). In Bridge Design, Local settlement consists of
compression of fill materials directly beneath the approach pavement, and is
evidence of possible embankment consolidation within the upper 10 to 20 feet of
the bridge embankment (n.d.). Speed of vehicles on bridges can affect the condition
of a bridge over time. Exceeding the posted speed
limit reduces the driver’s ability to steer safely around curves or objects in
the roadway. It also extends the distance required to stop a vehicle in emergency
situations. Crash severity increases with the speed of the vehicle at impact.
The effectiveness of restraint devices, like air bags and safety belts, and
vehicular construction features decline as impact speed increases (Drivers_Manual_Chapter_5.pdf, n.d.).