The drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, and corticosteroids are the

The oxidation of biological molecules by the
oxidative stress is involved in numbers of diseases including neurodegenerative,
cardiovascular, cancer, hepatic and renal disease. (Losada-Barreiro
et al., 2017). Oxidative stress is caused by the highly
energetic, chemically unstable and very reactive chemical species having a
single unpaired electron known as free radicals (Togo, 2004). When free radicals are produced in foods or
biological tissues, they react readily with biomolecules such as lipids,
carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids, producing different non-radical and
radical species which are responsible for disease state in humans (Rosini et
al., 2013). Antioxidants scavenge the free radicals and
restore damaged target molecules (Shahidi,
2015).

Inflammation is the immune
system’s response to infection and injury and has been implicated in the
pathogenesis of sepsis, severe
burns, arthritis, cancer, stroke, as well as in
neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disease (Nathan, 2002). Inflammatory mediators play a key role in the
manifestation of many clinical conditions such as pain and pyrexia. Thermal, chemical and/or
mechanical injuries have the potential
for releasing most of the inflammatory and chemical mediators that produce
sensitization and excitation of nociceptors, which sensitize the central neurons
in the nociceptive pathway inducing the pain and hyperalgesia (Pedersen, 2000). Pyrexia which is
associated with the enhanced release of pyrogens; interleukins, interferon induced
the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from hypothalamus resulting hyperthermia
(Dinarello,
2004). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
(NSAIDs), opioids, and corticosteroids are the available therapeutic agents to
treat inflammation and its associated disorders.

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World Health Organization
estimates up to 80 % of the population in developing countries relies on
traditional and botanical medicine as a primary source of health practice (Eskinazi, 2001). The investigation of plants for their medicinal use has been practiced
by many cultures from antiquity. Given
their extensive range of knowledge on medicinal plants utilization, indigenous people remain the ultimate resource for
retrieving information for the purpose of the application, particularly in
modern medicine (Idu, 2009). Research on plants based
medicine practiced by indigenous people is playing the virtuous role in drug
discovery (Pan et al., 2014). However, in absence of proper documentation, many traditional methods
and knowledge of medicinal flora are being lost (Correa, 2002).

Pogostemon bengalensis (P. bengalensis) is a perennial aromatic shrub belonging to
family Lamiaceae, which
is distributed from 150-1300
meter altitude (Uprety
et al., 2016). It is
commonly called “Rudhilo” in Nepal (Dangol, 2002). Traditionally,
plant leaves were inhaled and applied
on the forehead for a cough, cold, and headache (Ghimire
et al., 2009). Whereas,  juice was used to relieve fever (Manandhar,
1989).  Plant
juice was mixed with year old cow dung and given to cattle to control dysentery
(Manandhar,
1985), whereas root juice was used for indigestion
(Quattrocchi,
2012). Additionally, young shoots were grounded and given to treat a sore throat (Siwakoti et al., 2000).
P. bengalensis extract has reported the
presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compounds, terpenoids,
and steroids as the principal active ingredients (Patel et al.,
2014). Moreover, other phytochemicals reported were
cadinene isomer, elemol, ?-bulnesene, ?-elemene and germacrene-D in leaf oil and
 caryophyllene, germacrene-B, ?-cadiuene,
?-ocimene, ?-elemene, caryophyllene oide, curzerene, ?-humulene, ?-guaiene and
germacrene in inflorescence oil (Bhuiyan et
al., 2011). Pharmacologically, the plant has been
reported for antimicrobial activity against bacteria  including E. coli, S. aureus, P. vulgaris and A. parasiticus, antifungal
against C. albicans (Thoppil et
al., 2014) and antiviral against Sindbis virus. (Taylor et
al., 1996). Recently plants extract was investigated on
ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor-bearing mice, which showed significant
antitumor activity (Patel et al.,
2014).  

Despite the ethnopharmacological use of P.
bengalensis for treatment of fever and pain, its systematic scientific
evaluation has not been carried out till date. Therefore, the present study was
designed to scientifically evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic and antipyretic
activities of P. bengalensis leaves extract.